Liquid sloshing is a detrimental interfering side effect for fuel storage in engineering applications, especially in the spacecraft propulsion system. Sloshing in fuel storage tanks of spacecraft usually leads to undesired sloshing forces and moments, which must be counterbalanced by the altitude control system (Vergalla 2010, Bearman 1985). Therefore, accurate prediction of such nonlinear loads on the ground is critically important for spacecraft attitude control in operation (Nayak 2016). Combining experimental data with theoretical analysis is an effective method to study the liquid sloshing force and movement of the satellite tank (Panigrahy 2009, Maleki 2008, Yan G 2009).

NASA has been interested in fluid sloshing dynamic behaviors in aerospace missions since the 1950s to develop the Apollo program (Molin 2013). At the time the Navier-Stokes equations (Graham 1952) could not be numerically solved, thus scientists and engineers had to rely on analog methods, tests, and resulting correlations. In the 1980s and 1990s, with the emergence of powerful computers, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to simulate and predict slosh with little experimental data validation (Moiseev 1964). However, the results from CFD programs require extensive experimental validation, especially several mishaps have caused the programs to be questioned over the last few years (Moiseev 1966). Therefore, further experimental confirmation is imminent and the research based on liquid sloshing tests have been favored by more and more scholars (Huang 1993, Shabana 1991).

In the experimental literature, the issue of fluid structural interaction coupling be-tween an interior item and sloshing in the container has been addressed in a variety of ways. In particular, the interior item has three different structure forms involving the typical block-type (Bearman 1985, Nayak 2016), blade-type (Panigrahy 2009, Maleki 2008) and perforated plane type (Yan 2009, Molin 2013). For the block-type structure, Bearman has investigated the flow around the interior cylinder structure under harmonically fluctuating flow (Bearman 1985). Besides, the effect of the submerged block on the nonlinear sloshing was systematically studied by Nayak and Biswal subjected to horizontal earthquake motions (Nayak 2016). For the blade-type baffles of varying dimensions and orientations in the tank, Panigrahy focused on the pressure distributions at different locations and three-dimensional effects on liquid sloshing (Panigraghy 2009). Concerning horizontal ring and vertical blade-type baffles (Maleki 2008), an estimation of the liquid sloshing damping ratio in baffled tanks has been developed and the results have been validated by a series of experiments. The non-linear sloshing in partially filled tanks with perforated and orifice plate-type baffles was explored by Yan (Yan 2009). In addition, Molin has performed liquid sloshing experiments in a tank with vertical screens, which is subjected to forced harmonic horizontal and rolling motions(Molin 2013). However, these experimental studies did not involve the conical perforated plate structure in the real tank structure.

The paper aims to study liquid sloshing characteristics in a large-capacity propellant tank with a conical perforated type propellant management device (PMD). A set of a special frame structure for suspending the tank was designed. The sloshing characteristics and damping characteristics of the liquid in the satellite propellant tank will directly affect the attitude control of the satellite in orbit. Therefore, in this paper, the method of the sloshing test is used to simulate the sloshing force and moment generated by the satellite during orbit change. The sloshing forces and moments are obtained by the mechanical sensor fixed on the tank, which is redesigned for fitting the tank structure. The free attenuation sloshing and forced sloshing on the first-order resonance frequency are tested using full and half-layer (upper and lower half) tank respectively.