This paper is the first to report the development and preliminary validation of the brief NPPBQ, which was derived from the conceptual framework established by Hu J. and Liu X. H.12]. The psychometric examinations provided an initial test of the NPPBQ across clinical samples. The four steps provided promising evidence supporting the NPPBQ as a psychometrically sound, factorially stable, and brief measure of NPPB (for the final version of the NPPBQ see additional file: the English version and Chinese version of the NPPBQ).
Across the studies, the factor structure, reliability (Cronbach’s alpha and Guttman split-half reliability), and convergent validity of the NPPBQ were examined. The psychometric analyses of the NPPBQ supported the stability, validity, and good internal consistency of the instrument. The NPPBQ has a brief five-factor structure that showed sound validity and can be described as follows: (1) positive occupational perception; (2) good nurse-patient relationship; (3) recognition from family, relatives, and friends; (4) sense of belonging to a team; and (5) self-growth. The Cronbach’s alphas of all sub-questionnaires of the NPPBQ were 0.84, 0.83, 0.74, 0.79, and 0.85. In addition, the Guttman split-half values were 0.795, 0.826, 0.674, 0.725, and 0.877. The five dimensions revealed good consistency with the components of J. Hu and X. H. Liu’s model and the current literature on NPPB [4, 7, 8, 9, 12, 16]. The results suggest that the NPPBQ is theoretically and empirically valid.
The present study provided sufficient evidence supporting the 5-factor NPPBQ model and suggests that the solution is robust across Chinese samples. Additional validation in other cultures is a necessary future research direction. The results suggest that the factor structure for the NPPBQ is stable and clear. The five-dimension structure showed a good fit in terms of both the fit indices (e.g., TLI, CFI, and NFI) and absolute fit indices (e.g., 2/df, RMR, and RMSEA). Importantly, the 5-factor model fits the conceptual framework underlying the NPPBQ . The NPPBQ supports NPPB as a multidimensional construct and the foundational role of cognitive evaluation processes in the generation and maintenance of reasonable vocational cognition and evaluation; it also indicates that NPPB has an intermediate regulating effect on the relationship between job stress and job burnout. The five factors of the NPPBQ represent professional benefits in terms of both the material and non-material benefits of being a nurse. Thus, the NPPBQ significantly contributes by providing a valuable instrument measuring NPPB and assessing the unique aspects of this construct, such as nurses’ perceived nurse-patient relationships and support from important others. Therefore, targeted measures can be taken to improve those relevant aspects.
Concurrent validity analyses found that the NPPBQ was significantly negatively correlated with the emotional exhaustion and depersonalization dimensions’ scores (measured by the MBI). These results were anticipated given the strong relationship between the degree of nursing burnout and NPPB [17, 18]. Thus, the findings further support the validity of the NPPBQ.
According to a previously published study, the sense of occupational benefit can explain 31.6%, 13.1%, and 9.5% of the variance in emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal achievement . Similar to the results of the current study, it has been shown that NPPB is significantly positively associated with reduced personal accomplishment scores on the MBI. It seems plausible that nurses low in NPPB might tend to lack motivation and initiative in their work, resulting in a lower sense of job satisfaction and personal accomplishment. Moreover, a cognitive intervention program for nurses’ sense of occupational benefit can improve the level of professional benefit of nurses and alleviate their burnout . Conversely, a nurse with a higher sense of professional benefit will have a higher sense of personal accomplishment. Accordingly, it is well illustrated that NPPB is associated with self-efficacy and reduced nursing burnout.
In short, a theory-driven measure of NPPB was developed using three samples. The findings of the tests promisingly support the psychometric properties of the NPPBQ in terms of the construct validity and internal consistency. The NPPBQ has five sub-questionnaires. Thus, the NPPBQ reflects important features of NPPB, such as specific career cognition, sense of support from important others and self-development and, moreover, is a brief instrument that assesses all the constructs underlying NPPB as posited by Hu and Liu’s model . Importantly, the NPPBQ is a simple assessment measure. A brief questionnaire with a reasonable number of items will solve the shortcomings of a lengthy questionnaire, such as potential, missingness, and reduced data quality and response burden.
The NPPBQ was developed as a multidimensional instrument to assess registered nurses’ perceived professional benefits. The systematic literature review revealed relatively little research on the development of tools to measure the multiple aspects of professional benefits that nurses perceive. Although there are some related tools, few have focused generally on clinical nurses’ perspectives of their professional benefits, and few have been psychometrically verified with respect to their factor structure. The 5-factor NPPBQ is consistent with a former NPPB conceptual framework and further confirmed it in theory and practice.