Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine, and of xanthine to uric acid. XOR also enhances the production of reactive oxygen species and causes endothelial dysfunction. In this study, we evaluated the association of XOR and its substrate with the vascular complications in 94 Japanese inpatients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM).
The plasma XOR activity and plasma xanthine levels were positively correlated with the body mass index, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), γ-GTP, fasting plasma insulin, and the homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and negatively correlated with the high density lipoprotein cholesterol. The plasma XOR activity also showed a positive correlation with the serum triglyceride. Multivariate analyses identified AST, ALT, fasting plasma insulin and HOMA-IR as being independently associated with the plasma XOR activity. The plasma XOR activity negatively correlated with the duration of diabetes, and positively correlatted with the coefficient of variation of the R-R interval and sensory nerve conduction velocity. Furthermore, the plasma XOR activity was significantly decreased in patients with coronary artery disease.
Thus, the plasma XOR activity might be a surrogate marker for the development of vascular complications, as well as liver dysfunction and insulin resistance, in T2DM.
Trial registration: This study is registered at the UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000029970; https://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index-j.htm). The study was conducted from Nov 15, 2017.