Background: Sleep disturbance is a common complaint in people living with HIV/AIDS. Individuals with it are less likely to adhere to their treatment, have decreased quality of life, have decreased work productivity, and have increased risk of psychiatric disorders, cardiovascular morbidity, and disease progression. However, sleep condition remains under-recognized by clinicians and is not well studied in Ethiopia. Therefore it is necessary to produce scientific evidence to fill the clinical knowledge gap and recommend the focus area of management. The aim of the study was to assess sleep quality and its associated factors among people living with HIV/AIDS.
Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was utilized among 408 participants who were selected by a systematic random sampling technique at Zewditu memorial hospital from April to May 2018. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire was used to measure sleep quality. Ethical clearance was obtained from the joint ethics committee of the University of Gondar and Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital. Oral informed consent was obtained from each participant. Binary and multivariable logistic regression models were fitted. Odds ratios (OR) with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was computed to assess the strength of the association.
Results: The magnitude of poor sleep quality was 55.6%. Being female [AOR=3.40, 95% CI: (1.80, 6.41)], depression [AOR =3.52, 95% CI: (1.95, 6.32)], CD4count ≤ 200 cells/mm3 [AOR=3.18,95%CI: (1.65,6.13)], duration of HIV/AIDS diagnosis [AOR=3.43,95% CI: (1.61,7.29)], current use of tobacco [AOR=5.69, 95% CI: (2.04,15.9)] and chat or caffeinated drinks [AOR=2.65, 95% CI: (1.06,6.64)] and poor sleep hygiene [AOR=3.55, 95% CI: (1.85, 6.78)] were significantly associated with poor sleep quality.
Conclusions: More than half of the study participants were found to have poor sleep quality. A range factors influence quality of sleep of people with HIV/AIDS. Routine screening of sleep condition among people living with HIV/AIDS and early intervention based on the findings is suggested.