Purpose: Carvedilol (CRV) is a non-selective beta-blocker used for hypertension treatment, angina pectoris, and heart failure. Oral administration of CRV showed poor bioavailability (25%), which may be due to exposure to the first-pass metabolism. Buccal delivery was used to boost its bioavailability.
Methods: In this study carboxymethylcellulose/hydroxypropyl cellulose (CMC/HPC) composite buccal sponge enriched with CRV bilosomes was developed. Bilosomes were prepared using the thin-film hydration-sonication technique by applying a 32 -factorial design.
Results: BL9 possessed the highest desirability value (0.861) and therefore, it was chosen as an optimal bilosomes. It exhibited a spherical shape with 217.2 nm, 87.13% entrapment efficiency, and a sustained release of CRV up to 24h. Consecutively, BL9 was incorporated in a CMC/HPC gel and lyophilized for 24 h to obtain a CMC-HPCL9 bilosomal sponge to enhance CRV buccal delivery. Morphological analysis of the prepared sponge with improved swelling showed a porosity of 67.58 percent. The in vivo assessment of rats indicates that the CMC-HPC/BL9 sponge enhances systolic/diastolic blood pressure, lipid profiles, oxidative stress biomarkers, and heart biomarkers with improved heart tissue quality.
Conclusion: These results strongly encourage the use of this novel CMC-HPC/BL9 composite buccal sponge for the management of hypertension.