Periodic structures exhibit unique band gap characteristics by virtue of which they behave as vibro-acoustic filters thereby allowing only waves within a certain frequency range to pass through. In this paper, both lateral and vertical flexural wave propagation and vibration control of a periodic railway track are studied in depth. More precisely, a rail fastened on rigid sleeper blocks is modeled with an Euler-Bernoulli beam. The dispersion relations in both lateral and vertical directions are obtained using the Floquet-Bloch theorem and the resulting dispersion curves are verified using finite element (FE) models. Afterwards, tuned mass dampers (TMDs) with different mass ratios are designed to control vibrations of the examined rail along both lateral and vertical directions. Moreover, the influence of damping of rail and resonators on band structures is investigated. As a replacement to the conventional TMD, a novel possibility to control vibrations relies on using another rail as a lateral distributed resonator (LDR). Although the effectiveness of LDR is lower than that of localized resonators, the former represents a simple and promising way to control vibrations. Efficacy of the proposed control methods is finally verified using the results of transient simulation based on a random Gaussian white noise input.