Enquist BJ, Condit R, Peet RK, Schildhauer M, Thiers BM (2016) Cyberinfrastructure for an integrated botanical information network to investigate the ecological impacts of global climate change on plant biodiversity. PeerJ Preprints 4:e2615v2 https://doi.org/10.7287/peerj.preprints.2615v2. Accessed 17 June 2017.
Franklin J, Serra-Diaz JM, Syphard AD, Regan HM (2016) Global change and terrestrial plant community dynamics. Proc Natl Acad Sci 113:3725–3734. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1519911113.
Paquette A, Messier C (2011) The effect of biodiversity on tree productivity: from temperate to boreal forests: the effect of biodiversity on the productivity. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 20:170–180. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-8238.2010. 00592.x.
Pichancourt J-B, Firn J, Chadès I, Martin TG (2014) Growing biodiverse carbon-rich forests. Glob Change Biol 20:382–393. ttps://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12345.
Gamfeldt L, Snäll T, Bagchi R, Jonsson M, Gustafsson L, Kjellander P, Ruiz-Jaen MC, Froberg M, Stendahl J, Philipson CD, Mikusinski G, Andersson E, Westerlund B, Andren H, Moberg F, Moen J, Bengtsson J (2013) Higher levels of multiple ecosystem services are found in forests with more tree species. Nat Commun 4:1340. https://doi.org/10.1038/ncomms2328.
Thompson ID, Okabe K, Parrotta JA, Brockerhoff E, Jactel H, Forrester DI, Taki H (2014) Biodiversity and ecosystem services: lessons from nature to improve management of planted forests for REDD-plus. Biodivers Conserv 23:2613–2635. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-014-0736-0.
Bai Y, Broersma K, Thompson D, Ross TJ (2004) Landscape-level dynamics of grassland-forest transitions in British Columbia. Rangeland Ecology & Management 57:66–75.
Onaindia M, Ametzaga I, San Sebastián M, Mitxelena A, Rodríguez-Loinaz G, Peña L, Alday JG (2013) Can understorey native woodland plant species regenerate under exotic pine plantations using natural succession? Forest Ecology and Management. 308:136-144.
Fischer H, Micler B, Ewald J (2014) Environmental, spatial and structural components in the composition of mountain forest in the Bavarian Alps. Folia Geobotanica 49:361-384.
Zonneveld M, Koskela J, Vinceti B, Jarvis A (2009) Impact of climate change on the distribution of tropical pines in Southeast Asia. Unasylva 231/232:24-29.
Chaturvedi RK, Ranjith G, Jayaraman M (2011) Impact of climate change on Indian forests: a dynamic vegetation modeling approach. Mitig. Adapt. Strat. Gl. 16 (2), 119–142.
Ravindranath NH, Joshi, NV, Sukumar R (2006) Impact of climate change on forests in India. Curr. Sci. 90 (3), 354–361.
Cui HT, Liu HY, Dai JU (2005) Research on Mountain Ecology and Alpine Treeline. Beijing, China: Science Press.
K€orner C (2007) The use of altitude in ecological research. Trends of Ecology & Evolution 22:569–574.
Singh JS, Singh SP (1992) Forests of Himalaya; Structure, Functioning and Impact of Man. Gyanodaya Prakashan, Nainital, India.
Chandra J, Rawat VS, Rawat YS, Ram J (2010) Vegetational diversity along an altitudinal range in Garhwal Himalaya. Internat J Biodivers Conservat 2(1): 014-018.
Sharma CM, Mishra AK, Tiwari OP, Krishan R, Rana YS (2017) Effect of altitudinal gradients on forest structure and composition on ridge tops in Garhwal Himalaya. Energy Ecology and Environment 2(6):404–417.
Sharma CM, Tiwari OP, Rana YS, Krishan R, Mishra AK (2018) Elevational behaviour on dominance–diversity, regeneration, biomass and carbon storage in ridge forests of Garhwal Himalaya, India. Forest Ecology and Management 424:105–120.
Kharkwal G, Mehrotra P, Rawat YS, Pangtey YPS (2005) Phytodiversity and growth form in relation to altitudinal gradient in the Central Himalayan (Kumaun) region of India. Current Science 89(5):873-878.
Vetaas OR (2000) The effect of environmental factors on the regeneration of Quercus semecarpifolia Sm. in Central Himalaya, Nepal. Plant Ecology 146:137–144.
Gao J, Jiao K, Wu S, Ma D, Zhao D, Yin Y, Dai E (2017) Past and future effects of climate change on spatially heterogeneous vegetation activity in China. Earth’s Future 5(7):679–692.
Acharya BK, Chettri B, Vijayan L (2011) Distribution pattern of trees along an elevation gradient of Eastern Himalaya, India. Acta Oecologica 37:329-336.
Gaire NP, Koirala M, Bhuju DR, Borgaonkar HP (2014) Treeline dynamics with climate change at the central Nepal Himalaya. Climate of the Past 10:1277-1290
Dubuis A, Rossier L, Pottier J, Pellissier L,Vittoz P, Guisan A (2013) Predicting current and future spatial community patterns of plant functional traits. Ecography 36, 1158–1168.doi:10.1111/j.1600-0587.2013.00237.x.
Tewari VP, Verma RK, Klaus von Gadow (2017) Climate change effects in the Western Himalayan ecosystems of India: evidence and strategies. Forest Ecosystems 4:13 DOI 10.1186/s40663-017-0100-4.
Upgupta S, Sharma J, Jayaraman M, Kumar V, Ravindranath NH (2015) Climate change impact and vulnerability assessment of forests in the Indian Western Himalayan region: A case study of Himachal Pradesh, India. Climate Risk Management 10: 63–76.
Singh S, Bassignana-Khadka I, Karky B, Sharma E (2011) Climate change in the Hindu Kush-Himalayas: The state of current knowledge, Kathmandu: ICIMOD.
Dash SK, Jenamani RK, Kalsi SR, Panda SK (2007) Some evidence of climate change in twentieth-century India. Climate Change 85:299–321.
Shrestha AB, Wake CP, Mayewski PA, Dibb JE (1999) Maximum temperature trends in the Himalaya and its vicinity: an analysis based on temperature records from Nepal for the period 1971–94. J. Clim.
IPCC (2007) Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Geneva: IPCC.
Polanski S, Fallah B, Befort DJ, Prasad S, Cubasch U. (2014) Regional moisture change over India during the past millennium: A comparison of multiproxy reconstructions and climate model simulations. Global Planetary Change 122:176–185.
Chakraborty A, Saha S, Sachdeva K, Joshi PK (2018) Vulnerability of forests in the Himalayan region to climate change impacts and anthropogenic disturbances: A systematic review. Regional Environmental Change 18(6):1783–1799. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10113-018-1309-7.
Roces-Díaz JV, Jiménez-Alfaro B, Álvarez-Álvarez P, Álvarez-García MA (2014) Environmental niche and distribution of six deciduous tree species in the Spanish Atlantic region. iForest (early view): e1-e8 [online 2014-08-28] URL: http://www.sisef. it/iforest/contents/?id=ifor1183-008.
Tewari VP, Kleinn C (2015) Considerations on capacity building for national forest assessments in developing countries—with a case study of India. Int For Rev 17(2):244–254.
Thakur, AK, Kumar, R. and Verma, RK. (2018) Analysing India’s current national forest inventory for biodiversity information. Biodivers Conserv (2018) 27 (12):3049-3069. DOI 10.1007/s10531-018-1587-x.
Mouchet M, Levers C, Zupan L, Kuemmerle T, Plutzar C, Erb K, et al. (2015) Testing the Effectiveness of Environmental Variables to Explain European Terrestrial Vertebrate Species Richness across Biogeographical Scales. PLoS ONE 10(7): e0131924. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0131924.
Chaturvedi RK., Gopalakrishnan R, Jayaraman M, et al. (2011) Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Change. 16: 119. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11027-010-9257-7.
Walthert L, Meier ES. (2017) Tree species distribution in temperate forests is more influenced by soil than by climate. Ecol Evol. 7:9473–9484. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.3436.
Sharma CM, Suyal S, Gairola S, Ghildiyal SK. (2009) Species richness and diversity along an altitudinal gradient in moist temperate forest of Himalya. Joural of American Science 5:119-128.
Bhatt D, Sekar CK, Rawal RS, Nandi SK, Dhyani PP. (2016) Tree Diversity of Western Himalaya. G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment & Development, Almora, Uttarakhand, INDIA.
Kumar and Chopra, (2018) American Journal of Environmental Sciences. 14 (4): 185.194 DOI: 10.3844/ajessp.2018.185.194.
Sigdel SR, Dawadi B, Camarero J, Liang E, Leavitt SW (2018) Moisture-Limited Tree Growth for a Subtropical Himalayan Conifer Forest in Western Nepal. Forests 2018, 9, 340; doi:10.3390/f9060340
Aryal S, Bhuju DR, Kharal DK, Gaire NP, Dyola N (2018) Climatic upshot using growth pattern of pinus roxburghii From western nepal. Pak. J. Bot., 50(2): 579-588, 2018.
Schickhoff U (2005) The upper timberline in the Himalaya, Hindu Kush and Karakorum: a review of geographical and ecological aspects. In: Broll, G., Keplin, B. (Eds.), Mountain Ecosystems. Studies in Treeline Ecology. Springer, Berlin - Heidelberg, pp. 275-354.
Telwala Y, Brook BW, Manish K, Pandit MK. (2013) Climate-induced elevational range shifts and increase in plant species richness in a Himalayan biodiversity epicentre. PLoS One 2, e57103.
Dutta PK., Dutta BK, Das AK, Sundriyal RC (2014) Alpine treeline research gap in Himalaya: a literature review. Indian For. 4, 419-427.
Schickhoff U, Bobrowski M, B€ohner JJ, Bürzle B, Chaudari RP, Gerlitz L, Heyken H, Lange J, Müller M, Scholten T, Schwab N,Wedeg€artner R (2015) Do Himalayan treelines respond to Tree Species Along an Elevational Gradient in the Garhwal Himalaya. Mountain Research and Development Vol 38 No 3 Aug 2018: 211–21.
Pei J, Yang W, Cai Y, Yi Y, Li X (2018) Relationship between Vegetation and Environment in an Arid-Hot Valley in Southwestern China. Sustainability 2018, 10, 4774; doi:10.3390/su10124774.
Zhang C, Li X, Chen L, Xie G, Liu C and Sha Pei S (2016) Effects of Topographical and Edaphic Factors on Tree Community Structure and Diversity of Subtropical Mountain Forests in the Lower Lancang River Basin. Forests 2016, 7, 222; doi:10.3390/f7100222.
Sharma CM, Mishra AK, Krishan R, Tiwari OP, Rana YS. (2016a.) Impact of climate on structure and composition of ridgetop forests in Garhwal Himalaya. Taiwania 61(2):61–69.
Sharma CM, Mishra AK, Krishan R, Tiwari OP, Rana YS. (2016b) Variation in vegetation composition, biomass production and carbon storage in ridgetop forests of high mountains of Garhwal Himalaya. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 35(2):119–132.
Mishra AK, Behera SK, Singh K, Chaudhary LB, Mishra RM, Singh B (2013) Influence of abiotic factors on community structure of understory vegetation in moist deciduous forests of north India. Forest Science and Practice 15(4):261–273.
Joshi B, Pant SC (2012) Ethnobotanical study of some common plants used among the tribal communities of Kashipur, Uttarakhand. Indian J Nat Prod Resour 3:262–266
Xu J et al (2007) The melting Himalayas: regional challenges and local impacts of climate change on mountain ecosystems and livelihoods. ICIMOD, Kathmandu
Hamid M, Charles B, Ahmad R, Singh CP, Aravind NA (2018) Impact of climate change on the distribution range and niche dynamics of Himalayan birch, a typical treeline species in Himalayas. Biodiversity and Conservation. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10531-018-1641-8
Huang KY. (2002) Evaluation of the topographic sheltering effects on the spatial pattern of Taiwan fir using aerial photography and GIS. International Journal of Remote Sensing 23: 2051-2069.
Jones MM, Tuomisto H, Clark DB, Olivas P (2006) Effects of mesoscale environmental heterogeneity and dispersal limitation on floristic variation in rain forest ferns. Journal of Ecology 94: 181-195.
Jabeen T, Ahmad SS (2009) Multivariate analysis of environmental and vegetation data of Ayub National Park Rawalpindi. Soil & Environment 28: 106-112.
Zhang H, Qian Y, Wu Z, Wang Z. 2012. Vegetation-environment relationships between northern slope of Karlik Mountain and Naomaohu Basin, East Tianshan Mountains. Chinese Geographical Science 22: 288-301.
Enright NJ, Miller BP, Akhter R. 2005. Desert vegetation and vegetation-environment relationships in Kirthar National Park, Sindh, Pakistan. Journal of Arid Environments 61: 397-418.
Hoang VS, Baas P, Keβler PJA, Slik JWF, Steege HT, Raes N. 2011. Human and environmental influences on plant diversity and composition in Ben En National Park, Vietnam. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 23: 328-337.
Hejcmanova-Nezerková P, Hejcman M. 2006. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of the vegetation and environment relationships in Sudanese savannah, Senegal. South African Journal of Botany 72: 256-262.
Sharma CM, Suyal S, Gairola S, Ghildiyal SK. 2009. Species richness and diversity along an altitudinal gradient in moist temperate forest of Himalya. Joural of American Science 5: 119-128.
Shrestha AB, Wake CP, Mayewski PA, D. B. J. E., J. Climate, 1999, 12, 2775–2787.
Jianchu X, Shrestha A, Vaidya R, Eriksson M, Hewitt K (2007) ICIMOD Technical Paper, ICIMOD, Nepal.
Panda RM, Behera MD, Roy PS, Biradar C (2017) Energy determines broad pattern of plant distribution in Western Himalaya. Ecology and Evolution. 2017;7:10850–10860.
Thadani R, Singh V, Shahabuddin G (2014) Forests of the Western Himalaya. Current science, vol. 107, no. 1226 8, 25 October 2014
Oommen MA, Shanker K (2005) Elevational species richness patterns emerge from multiple Local mechanisms in himalayan woody plants. Ecology, 86(11), 2005, pp. 3039–3047
Bulletin E-3221. Forest Management in a Changing Climate: How the Climate Affects Forests, July 2014.
FSI (2011) Atlas forest types of India. Forest survey of India (MoEF).
FSI (2019) Forest Survey of India: India state of Forest Report 2019. FSI, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, Dehradun.
FSI (2011) Forest Survey of India: India state of Forest Report 2011. FSI, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, Dehradun.
Serra-Diaz JM, Enquist BJ, Maitner B, Merow C, Svenning JC (2017) Big data of tree species distributions how big and how good. Forest Ecosystems (2017) 4:30 DOI 10.1186/s40663-017-0120-0.
Xu, WX and Liu, XD (2007) Response of vegetation in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to global warming. Chinese Geogr. Sci. 17 (2): 151 – 159. DOI: 10.1007/s11769-007-0151-5.
Mainali, J.; All, J, Jha, PK, Bhuju DR (2015) Responses of Montane Forest to Climate Variability in the Central Himalayas of Nepal. Mt. Res. Dev. 35 (1): 66 – 77. DOI: 10.1659/MRD-JOURNAL-D-13-00101.1.
Liang, EY, Liu, WW, Ren, P, Dawadi B, Eckstein, D (2015) The alpine dwarf shrub Cassiope fastigiata in the Himalayas: does it reflect site-specific climatic signals in its annual growth rings? Trees Struct. Funct. 29 (1): 79 – 86. DOI: 10.1007/s00468-014- 1128-5.
Wang, X, Sun, ZY & Zhou, AG (2014) Alpine Cold Vegetation Response to Climate Change in the Western Nyainqentanglha Range in 1972 – 2009. 2014. Scientific World Journal. DOI: 10.1155/2014/514736.
Singh N, Patel NR, Bhattacharya BK, Soni P, Parida BR, Parihar JS (2014) Analyzing the dynamics and inter-linkages of carbon and water fluxes in subtropical pine (Pinus roxburghii) ecosystem. Agri. For. Meteor. 197: 206 – 218. DOI: 10.1016/j. agrformet.2014.07.004.
Wang T, Liang YH, Ren B, Yu D, Ni J, Ma KP. 2004. Age structure of Picea schrenkiana forest along an altitudinal gradient in the central Tianshan Mountains, northwestern China. Forest Ecol Manage, 196: 267−274.
Dubey B, Yadav RR, Singh J, Chaturvedi R (2003) Upward shift of Himalayan pine in Western Himalaya, India. Current Science, Vol. 85, NO. 8, 25 October 2003.
Shrestha AB, Aryal R (2011) Climate change in Nepal and its impact on Himalayan glaciers. Regional Environmental Change, 11(1): 65-77.
Xu J, Grumbine RE, Shrestha A, Eriksson M, Yang X, Wang Y, Wilkes A (2009) The melting himalayas: cascading effects of climate change on water, biodiversity, and livelihoods. Conservation Biology, 23: 520-530.
Singh N, Patel NR, Bhattacharya BK, Soni P, Parida, BR, Parihar, JS (2014) Analyzing the dynamics and inter-linkages of carbon and water fluxes in subtropical pine (Pinus roxburghii) ecosystem. Agri. For. Meteor. 197: 206 – 218. DOI: 10.1016/j. agrformet.2014.07.004
Behera SK, Mishra AK, Sahu N, Kumar A, Singh N, Kumar A, Bajpai O,Chaudhary LB, Khare PB, Tuli R (2012) The study of microclimate in response to different plant community association in tropical moist deciduous forest from northern India. Biodiversity and Conservation 21:1159–1176.
Mishra AK, Behera SK, Singh K, Chaudhary LB, Mishra RM, Singh B. 2013. Influence of abiotic factors on community structure of understory vegetation in moist deciduous forests of north India. Forest Science and Practice 15(4):261–273.
Chaturvedi RK, Raghubanshi AS, Tomlinson KW, Singh JS (2017) Impacts of human disturbance in tropical dry forests increase with soil moisture stress. Journal of Vegetation Science 28:997–1007.
Grubb PJ (1977) The maintenance of species-richness in plant communities: The importance of the regeneration niche. Biological Review 52:107–145.
Ceccon E, Sanch_ez S, Campo-Alves J (2004) Tree seedling dynamics in two abandoned tropical dry forests of different successional status in Yucat_an, Mexico: A field experiment with N and P fertilization. Plant Ecology 170:12–26.
Mishra AK, Singh RP (2017) Shift in plant species distribution and regeneration potential due to global warming and climate change in Himalayan region. EnviroNews 23(4). http://isebindia.com/17-20/17-10-2. html; accessed on 10 September 2018.
Gautam MR, Timilsina GR, Acharya K (2013) Climate change in the Himalayas current state of knowledge. The World Bank Development Research Group Environment and Energy Team, Policy research working paper WP-6516, p 47
Elliiot WJ, Page-Dumroese D, Robichaud PR. 1999. The Effects of Forest Management on Erosion and Soil Productivity. https://forest.moscowfsl.wsu.edu/smp/docs/docs/Elliot_1-57444-100-0.html.
Singh MP, Singh, BS, Dey S. 2002. Plant Biodiversity and taxonomy. Daya Publishing House. Delhi. pp43.
Gairola, S., Rawal, R.S. and Todaria, N.P. 2008. Forest vegetation patterns along
an altitudinal gradient in sub-alpine zone of west Himalaya, India. African Journal of Plant Science 2(6): 42-48.
Singh G and Rawat GS. 2012. Depletion of Oak (Quercus spp.) Forests in the Western Himalaya: Grazing, Fuelwood and Fodder Collection. www.intechopen.com. Global perspectives on sustainable forest management. Edi. Clement AO. eBook ISBN: 978:953-51-5283-5.
Champion H.G. and Seth S.K. (1968). A revised survey of: The Forest Types of India. Forest Research Institute, Dehradun
Bhatt J, Tewari A and Mittal A. 2015. Regeneration Problem in Quercus leucotrichophora A. Camus in Nainital Forest Division of Kumaun Himalaya. Int. J. Pure App. Biosci. 3 (3): 284-290. ISSN: 2320 – 7051.
Singh G and Rawat GS (2012) Depletion of oak (Quercus spp.) forests in the Western Himalaya: grazing, fuelwood and fodder collection. In: Okia CK (ed) Global perspectives on sustainable forest management. Intech publishers, Croatia, pp 39–42
Forman TTR, Godron M (1986) Landscape ecology. Wiley, New York
Khanna LS (1996) Principles and practice of silviculture. Khanna Bandhu, Dehradun
Saberwal VK. 1995. Pastoral politics: Gaddi grazing, degradation and biodiversity conservation in Himachal Pradesh, India. Conservation Biology 10:741-749.
IPCC (2007) Contribution of Working Group II to the fourth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Kumar R, Shamet GS, Pandey A, Kakade V, Dinesh D, Sharma N and Gupta D (2016) Impact of Anthropogenic Disturbances on Ecology of Pinus gerardiana Wall in Indian Himalaya: A Review. Agri Res & Tech: Open Access J 1(3): ARTOAJ.MS.ID.55561 (2016)
Singh SP, Singh RD, Gumber S and Bhatt S (2017) Two principal precipitation regimes in Himalayas and their influence on tree distribution. Tropical Ecology 58(4): 679-691, 2017.