For more than one century, low-energy (< 100 keV) photons (x-rays and gamma) have been widely used in different areas including biomedical research and medical applications such as mammography, fluoroscopy, general radiography, computed tomography, and brachytherapy treatment, amongst others. It has been demonstrated that most of the electrons produced by low photon energy beams have energies below 10 keV. However, the physical processes by which these low energy electrons interact with matter are not yet well understood. Besides, it is generally assumed that all the energy deposited within a dosimeter sensitive volume is transformed into a response. But such an assumption could be incorrect since part of the energy deposited might be used to create defects or damages at the molecular and atomic level. Consequently, the relationship between absorbed dose and dosimeter response can be mistaken. During the last few years, efforts have been made to identify models that allow to understand these interaction processes from a quantum mechanical point of view. Some approaches are based on electron-beam − solid-state-interaction models to calculate electron scattering cross-sections while others consider the density functional theory method to localize low energy electrons and evaluate the energy loss due to the creations of defects and damages in matter. The results obtained so far could be considered as a starting point. This paper presents some methodologies based on fundamental quantum mechanics which can be considered useful for dealing with low-energy interactions.