A retrospective study was conducted in Hawassa University comprehensive and specialized hospital (HUCSH). HUCSH is a teaching hospital providing both inpatient and outpatient services to more than 5 million people in the region. The microbiology lab is the only regional referral laboratory where patients from the region as well from parts of the region referred for bacteriological. All bacteremia-suspected patients were sent to microbiology lab for blood culture diagnosis of bacteremia and sensitivity tests.
We retrieved all microbiological reports on bacterial pathogens from January first 2019 to March 30, 2020. This study was approved by IRB of Hawassa University College of Medicine and health sciences. Administrative permission to access data was requested through the hospital laboratory manager of Hawassa University College of Medicine and health sciences. All data obtained in the course of the study were reserved confidential and used only for this study. We have no inclusion criteria except we reject unsuitably recorded data’s like illegible or incomplete in a sense of either age or final culture results.
Our laboratory bacteriological analysis follows all standard operation procedures based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute’s (CLSI). The collected clinical samples were submitted to the laboratory and processed following standard procedures. Hence according to CLSI, a 1-2 mL blood sample was collected aseptically and added totryptic soya broth in a ratio of blood to broth 1:9 and incubated at 35-37°C. Visual inspection for possible microbial growth; like hemolysis, turbidity, gas production and pellicle formation was assessed until5th days to report no bacterial growth.Turbid broth cultures were sub cultured into MacConkey agar, Blood agar plates and Chocolate agar plates (Oxoid™ Ltd, Thermo Fisher Scientific, and Waltham, MA, USA) and incubated at 37°C for 24–48 hours. The Chocolate agar-incubated cultures were carried out in a microaerophilic atmosphere by using a candle jar. Bacterial identification was done primary based on colony characteristics and Gram-stain reaction followed by proper biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of isolates was determined by Kirby- Bauer disc diffusion method and the results were interpreted according to CLSI guidelines . The following antibiotics were used; Pencillin (10 µg), Cotrimoxazole (25 µg), Tetracycline (30 µg), Amoxicillin-Calvulanic acid (20/10 μg), Ceftazidime (30 μg), cefotaxime(30 μg), Doxycycline(30 µg), Chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone (30 μg), ampicillin (10 μg) Erythromycin(15μg), gentamicin (10 μg), meropenem (10 μg, Amikacin(30 μg), ceftriaxone (30 μg)
Our microbiology lab performs quality control of all culture system by using E. coli (ATCC-25922), S. aureus (ATCC- 25923) and P. aeruginosa (ATCC-27853) as positive and negative controls respectively. In addition the National laboratory, Ethiopian Public Health Institute (EPHI) supervised as well supplies all necessary quality issues,
The data was entered and analysed using SPSS version 20(IBM Corporation, Armonk, NY, USA). Descriptive statistics like frequency and percentages of categorical variables was calculated then compared using Chi-square test. The odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated to estimate the relationship of outcome with independent variables. The significance level was p<0.05.