The spatial resolutions of live-cell super-resolution microscopes are limited by the maximum collected photon flux. Taking advantage of a priori knowledge of the sparsity and continuity of biological structures, we develop a deconvolution algorithm that further extends the resolution of super-resolution microscopes under the same photon budgets by nearly twofold. As a result, sparse structured illumination microscopy (Sparse-SIM) achieves ~60 nm resolution at a 564 Hz frame rate, allowing it to resolve intricate structural intermediates, including small vesicular fusion pores, ring-shaped nuclear pores formed by different nucleoporins, and relative movements between the inner and outer membranes of mitochondria in live cells. Likewise, sparse deconvolution can be used to increase the three-dimensional resolution and contrast of spinning-disc confocal-based SIM (SD-SIM), and operates under conditions with the insufficient signal-to-noise-ratio, all of which allows routine four-color, three-dimensional, ~90 nm resolution live-cell super-resolution imaging. Overall, sparse deconvolution may be a general tool to push the spatiotemporal resolution limits of live-cell fluorescence microscopy.