Background: Currently, brucellosis is the most widespread zoonotic disease in the world. In Eritrea, the disease has been documented since the 1940s, with widespread infections throughout the country.That being said, the only facility that tested for brucellosis is the National Animal and Plant Health Laboratory of Eritrea (NAPHL). Therefore, this study will focus on the pattern and distribution of human brucellosis tested and diagnosed at NAPHL.
Method: This study is a retrospective cross-sectional look at all the Rose-Bengal test confirmed Brucellosis cases at the NAPHL from January, 2017 to December, 2019.
Results:A total of 848 cases were detected out of 2,669 patients tested. The male to female ratio was 2.78 in those who tested positive for brucellosis. In the years, 2018 and 2019, the age range was between 1 and 89 with a mean of 29 years. Patients came from 5 of the 6 zones of Eritrea. Across the study period, no tests were recorded from the Southern Red Sea zone. Overall, Maekel Zone had the most cases, followed by Debub Zone and Northern Red Sea Zone.Scatter plot imaging by village showed a dense scatter area around the Maekel zone. Cases mapping by sub-zone showed highest number of cases in the Sub-Zones of the Maekel Zone and those located closest to the zone (namely Ghindae, Segheneiti, Dubarwa and Dekemhare).
Conclusion:As human brucellosis is widespread in Eritrea,the government should take quick actions to increase accessibility to testing and treatment facilities,and implement an eradication program.