A solar radiation distribution method is proposed based on the maximization of economic benefits for photovoltaic power generation and agricultural production in a photovoltaic greenhouse to solve the problem of low overall economic benefits because of an unreasonable solar radiation distribution between photovoltaic power generation and agricultural production in the photovoltaic greenhouse. First, a mathematical model of the solar radiation yield of photovoltaic greenhouse crops is proposed based on a rectangular hyperbolic modified light response model of crops to represent the relationship between solar radiation energy and crop production. Second, a mathematical model of the average annual revenue of a photovoltaic greenhouse is established to determine the maximum annual economic benefit of the photovoltaic greenhouse, and the model is constrained by the requirements of the light intensity of photovoltaic power generation and environmental conditions for the growth of greenhouse crops. Finally, the correctness of the model is verified by actual operation data of a photovoltaic greenhouse in Xinjiang, and the optimal solar radiation distribution proportion is calculated. This study provides theoretical support for the design of photovoltaic greenhouses.