Momordicajanarthanamii Gosavi, Gholave, Madhav & Kambale, sp. nov. Type: INDIA, Maharashtra, Nashik District, Karanjali Ghat (Kumbharbari), 20°15'37.04''N, 73°36'58.28''’E, 646 m, 07 July 2020, K.V.C. Gosavi & A.R. Gholave 5141 (holotype CAL!, isotypes BSI!, SUK!) (Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4).
Momordicajanarthanamii is closely related to M. dioica but differs in buds of male flowers not subtended in bract (vs. subtended in bract), bracts of male flowers orbicular, 0.4–0.5 cm long, not covers pedicel and glandular along margins (vs. reniform, cucullate, up to 1 cm long, covers pedicel and eglandular along margins), bracts of female flowers ovate and glandular along margins (vs. cucullate and eglandular), sepals of female flowers 10–12 mm long, linear elliptic to ensiform, glandular along margins and acute at apex (vs. 3–6 mm long, elliptic to oblong, eglandular along margins and mucronulate at apex), seeds hexagonal in shape and 7–9 mm long (vs. round to slightly ovoid in shape and 2–3 mm across).
Perennial, dioecious, tuberous, tendrillar climbers, up to 10 m high. Tubers elongated or irregularly bulged at maturity. Stems pentangular, inter-nodes 5–15 cm long, minutely hirsute, nodes pilose to villous at either side of leaf base or base of branches. Tendrils simple, 5–17cm long, basal 2–5 cm long part uncoiled, upper 3–12 cm long part coiled. Petioles 2–9 cm × 1.5–4 mm, villous at the apical region, channeled, channel ribs sparsely scaberulous to glabrous. Lamina ovate to broadly triangular in outline, rarely hastate, entire or 3–5 lobed, 6–13 × 5–15 cm, base cordate, apex acute or acuminate, margin undulate or crenulate to coarsely denticulate, scabrous, lateral veins 3 paired; lower vein pair inconspicuous, short, running near to basal margin, upper 2 pairs fused at base, secondary and tertiary veinlets form denticulate or mucronulate at the end of margin, bulbous based short hairs scattered on upper surface, cystoliths on lower surface, veins of lower surface sparsely hirsute to pilose. Male flower solitary to 5–8 in scorpioid cymes; male flowers 5–9 × 4–6 cm, axillary; solitary flower pedicel 4.5–8 cm × 1.5–2 mm long, thick, angled, articulated above the bract, hirsute to pilose. Nodal bracts on cyme, lower 0–3 sterile, margins glandular to eglandular, acute to acuminate at apex. Bracts at the tip of pedicel, orbicular, 4–5 × 5–6 mm, persistent, margins covered with glands, pilose at apical margin, apex dark green, thick, acute, ca. 10 nerved, lower surface pilose hairy. Receptacle tube funnel shape, 0.8–l × 0.4–0.5 cm, purplish black, echinate to pilose or mixed. Sepals 5, free, 0.8–1 × 0.2–0.4 cm, elliptic-oblong, yellowish purple at base, greenish yellow at apex, margins ciliate to short pilose, sparsely 5-nerved, acute at apex, both surfaces sparsely hairy. Petals 5, free, obovate, 3–4 × 2.3–3 cm, bright yellow, veins prominent, villous to pubescent on outer surface. Stamens 3, two with a pair of anthers, one with a single anther; filaments whitish yellow 3–4 mm long, glabrous or sparsely hairy; anthers 2–3 × 1.5–2 mm, extrorse, thecae dull black, S-shaped. Female flowers 5–10 × 4–7.5 cm, solitary, in the leaf axils; pedicel 3.5–8 cm × 1.5–2 mm, angled, hirsute to pilose. Bracts at middle of pedicel, 1.0–2.0 × 0.8–1.5 mm, persistent, ovate, greenish white, few glands at margins, sparsely hairy, apex acute, dark green. Sepals 5, free, 10–12 × 1.5–2 mm, linear elliptic to ensiform, green, margins sparsely hairy, few glands on margins, sparsely 5-nerved, acute at apex, with dark green tip. Petals 5, free, ovate, 3–5 × 2.2–4 cm, bright yellow, veins prominent, villous to pubescent on outer surface. Ovary ovoid, 1–1.5 × 0.4–0.6 cm, densely covered with ca. 1 mm long soft papillae. styles 3–5 mm long, whitish green, stigma 4 × 8 mm, 3 lobed, each lobe bifid. Fruits broadly ellipsoid to ovoid, or with round base and rostrate apex, 3.5–6 × 2–3 cm, dark green to whitish green, turning bright orange on ripening, densely covered with spines; spines soft, 2–3 mm long, terete or slightly compressed. Pulp sweet when ripe, carmine red. Seeds black, shining, losing its lustre on drying, hexagonal shaped, sculptured on faces with irregular blotches of furrows and ridges, 7–9 × 5–6.5 mm, seed coat hard, brittle; endosperm oily, aromatic.
Phenology: Flowering and fruiting— July to August.
Distribution: India: Maharashtra: Nashik district.
Local name: Kartule (Marathi).
Specimens examined: INDIA, Maharashtra, Nashik Districts, Karanjali Ghat (Kumbharbari), 20°15'37.04''N, 73°36'58.28''’E, 646 m, 07 July 2020, K.V.C. Gosavi & A.R. Gholave 5141(male) (holotype CAL!, isotypes BSI!, SUK!).
Additional specimens examined: INDIA, Maharashtra, Nashik Districts, Karanjali Ghat, 07 July 2020, K.V.C. Gosavi & A.R. Gholave 5142 (female); 20 July 2020, K.V.C. Gosavi & N.A. Madhav 5151(male); 20 July 2020, K.V.C. Gosavi & N.A. Madhav 5152 (female); Tryambakeshwar, Vatvad, 19 July 2020, S.S. Kambale & A.R. Gholave ARG-1001 (male) (housed in BSI).
Economic value: Fruits of the species are used as vegetable by localites. The unripe fruits are also sold in local markets.
Ecological note:Momordicajanarthanamii is commonly grows from foothills to almost top of Karanjali ghat and also at hills of Tryambakeshwar in Nashik districts. Thus, there is need to explore the species to estimate its IUCN status. At present it is considered here as Data Deficient (DD, IUCN, 2019). The species is commonly found on shrubby species and bushes like Carissacarandas L., Strobilanthescallosa (Nees) Bremek, Capparissepiaria L., Lantanacamara L. and Tectonagrandis L.f.
Etymology: The specific epithet is in honor of Prof. Malapati Kuppuswamy Janarthanam, Department of Botany, Goa University for his valuable voluminous contribution in the field of angiosperm taxonomy and conservation of the rare and endemic species of Western Ghats, India.