Aim: To assess the effects of nasal decontamination on preventing surgical site infections (SSIs) in people who are Staphylococcus aureus carriers undergoing different types of surgeries and diverse measures of decolonization.
Methods: Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified through systematic searches of the PubMed, Embase, Web of science, and the Cochrane Library databases. The risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and the effects model was chosen according to the heterogeneity. Subgroup analyses were performed according to different types of surgeries and measures of decolonization that Staphylococcus aureus carriers were applied.
Results: Twenty RCTs published between 1996 and 2019 involving 10526 patients were included. Pooled results showed that the overall SSIs and pulmonary surgery SSIs presented with a statistical difference in measures of nasal decontamination (RR=0.59 and 0.47, respectively, both p<0.01). However, the associations between nasal decolonization and increased risks of SSIs in orthopedics surgery or cardiovascular surgery remained insignificant in studies. As for the diverse measures of nasal decontamination, 50% used mupirocin, 15% used chlorhexidine, 30% used different types of antimicrobial drugs, and 5% use others. The SSIs rate were decreased after chlorhexidine (RR=0.474, 95% CI: 0.259-0.864), while no significant difference was shown in the use of mupirocin (RR=0.871, 95% CI: 0.544-1.394).
Conclusion: It seems that nasal decolonization of Staphylococcus aureus may be associated with a reduction of SSIs in these patients, especially in patients who have been administered by pulmonary surgeries or treated with chlorhexidine.