Cancer is a disease in which uncontrolled growth of normal cells Occur, (over growth of normal cells occur. Due to certain types of mutation (UV rays, X rays, DNA changes due to change in nucleotide or due to some carcinogenic chemicals) cancer occur. It is not the disease of classical or modern era rather it very ancient one and founded in fossil and Egyptian mummies and other death remains. From the history we found that oldest narratives of cancer are back to 3000 BC in Egypt, even though we didn’t find the word cancer in records, the origin of word cancer is attribute to Hippocrates (370–400 BC), first a word from Greek carcino was used after that carcinoma to disturb finger like structure originated from cancer cells. After him Latin word cancer was used by physician Celus (28–50 BC) .
Carcinoma was also used for some other types of cancer include (cancer of lungs, colon cancer, cancer of breast cancer and caner of ovaries), Sarcoma (Cancer of bones and cancer of cartilage), Lymphoma (Cancer of lymph nodes) and, Leukemia (cancer of blood). Many other kinds of cancer in addition to these are also present name depending after the body part affected by it. i.e Kidney cancer, Bladder cancer, Skin cancer, Prostate cancer, Bone marrow cancer and many more. There many risk factors Smoking or air pollination in environment give rise to lung cancer, alcohol and a particular type of infection can also cause cancer, for example helicobacter pylori and hepatitis type B and type C . Now a day’s life style and diet also be thread and risk factor for cancer development. said that there are more than 300 genes that can cause mutation resulting to genetic cancer and abnormal protein production. Genetic mutation cancer occurs when certain (cancer causing) genes transfer from parents to offspring.
When cell pass through cell division and expose to certain chemicals or rays that damage the DNA or Couse DNA nucleotide deletion, inversion, subtraction, or miss matching occur, resulting the abnormality in DNA and ultimately protein disturbance occur. In cell different properties may accumulate which might assist in uncontrolled growth of the cell. Most important cancer cells need blood supply for continuous growth and escape the cells from expiry, new blood vessels are formed by tumor cells for this purpose endothelial cells are activated, scientist called this a process angiogenesis. GLOBOCAN estimated that there will be 17.0 million cases in 2018 in all over the world, In Pakistan the numbers are 148.041 people are going to have this disease. According to the institute of health metrics and evaluation (IHME) the 9.6 million people are estimated, which are going to die due to cancer. In Pakistan 100.000 out of 148.041 are going to die.
Depending upon sex, both male and female are equally affected by different types of cancer. In female breast cancer is more common than colorectal and lung cancer and in men lung cancer follows by prostate and colorectal cancer are more common. Long is more common in male about with the percentage of 11.6% and in female the breast cancer which the percentage of 11.6%. Cancers for all age-standardized rate (containing non-melanoma cancer for skin) both for males and females in combination was 197.9 per 100,000 people in 2018. The higher rate was observed for males (218.6 per 100,000) than females (182.6 per 100,000). Highest cancer rate was observed in Australia for both males and females (468.0 people per 100,000). Age-standardised rate in 12 countries Australia, the US, New Zealand, Ireland, Hungary, Belgium, France, Netherlands, Canada, Denmark, Norway, New Caledonia (France) was at least 320 per 100,000. European, Oceania, North American and Asian countries are in top 12. Australia with 468.0, New Zealand with 438.1, Ireland with 373.7, Hungry 568.1, USA with 352.2, Belgium 345.8, France 344.1, Denmark 340.4, Norway 337.8, Thailand 334.1 with Age-standard rate per 100,000.
Cancer symptoms include Breath problems, Unexplained bleeding from vagina, Very heavy sweats at night times, Rough or harsh voice, Persistent heartburn or indigestion, Ulcer of mouth or tongue that won’t heal easily or never heal, Persistent bloating, swallowing difficulty, changes in bowel pattern, i.e. constipation, looser poo or pooing more often, Sore which won’t heal, loss of appetite, Unfamiliar changes in breast, poo contain blood, blooding during pee, complication while peeing, unexplainable loss in weight, occurs of new mole or deviations to a mole, hacking with blood, Persistent cough, indefinable pain or ache in different body parts, Unusual lump observation or swelling of lump nodes anywhere in body. Objective of survey and presence study was to assess the knowledge of people of Baluchistan regarding cancer.