Following the discovery of X-rays in 1895 by German physicist Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen and of radioactivity the following year by French physicist Henri Becquerel, medical, industrial, and military uses of radiation technology were developed that eventually led to a marked increase in human population exposure to ionizing radiation. With the wide application of radiation technology in the medical field, more than 70% of the radiation comes from the medical application of radiation.
Radiation injury, tissue damage or changes caused by exposure to ionizing radiation—namely, gamma rays, X-rays, and such high-energy particles as neutrons, electrons, and positrons. Sources of ionizing radiation may be natural (e.g., radioactive substances such as the element radium or the radioisotopes potassium-40 and carbon-14) or man-made (X-ray machines, nuclear reactors, particle accelerators, nuclear weapons, etc.).
Through the displacement of electrons (ionization), ionizing radiation effectively disrupts molecular bonds. In living organisms, such disruption can cause extensive damage to cells and their genetic material. A characteristic type of DNA damage produced by ionizing radiation, even by a single radiation track through a cell, involves closely spaced, multiple lesions that compromise cellular DNA repair mechanisms. Although most of the cells sustaining such radiation-induced damage may be eliminated by damage response pathways, some cells are capable of escaping these pathways, propagating, and eventually undergoing malignant transformation, a crucial step in cancer development.(1)
Cancer risk is increased roughly in proportion to the amount of energy deposited in tissue (radiation dose, usually quantified in units of gray [Gy] or milligray [mGy], where 1 Gy corresponds to 1 joule of energy per kilogram of tissue). However, organs and tissues differ in their sensitivity to radiation carcinogenesis (cancer-causing ability). Cancer risk further varies by type of ionizing radiation, by gender, by age at exposure, by age and time following exposure, and by lifestyle factors, such as reproductive history and exposure to other carcinogens (e.g., tobacco smoke). On average, the bulk of radiation dose to individuals comes from natural background sources that have changed little over the span of human existence. Assessment of the health impact of ionizing radiation requires an understanding of the interactions of radiation with living cells and the subsequent reactions that lead to injury. (2, 3)
The biomedical effects of ionizing radiation have been investigated more thoroughly than those of any other environmental agent. Evidence that harmful effects may result from small amounts of such radiation has prompted growing concern about the hazards that may be associated with low-level irradiation from the fallout of nuclear weapons, medical radiography, nuclear power plants, and other sources.
Screening from 2016 to 2017 based on the radiation exposure dose of radiation workers, through the statistical analysis to investigate the interventional radiology, diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy, industrial flaw detection, the different type of work such as nuclear medicine, different length of service and whether there is any contact between the average dose dose - effect relationship, provide the basis for provide the corresponding intervention measures.