Medical education is dissemination of knowledge to healthcare professionals regarding real world scenarios that they might face in their respective fields (1). Practical training brings with itself some dilemmas. One such conundrum is safety and wellbeing of patients, while providing optimal care. Other side of the coin requires repeated exposure to better understand and respond to clinical situations (2). There are other factors such as necessity of doctors to be well versed with teamwork and good communication skills piled on to basic need of knowledge and skill (3, 4).
It is vital that medical education cannot and should not lag in relation to other fields of learning, thus needs to incorporate simulation-based training (SBT) in clinical learning is compulsory. Moreover, simulation is not a technology, rather it is a technique to help either replace and/or augment learning experience that is gained from real situations. SBT is immersive in characteristics, aimed to draw participant into a task or setting as they were experiencing it in an actual setting (5, 6).
Clinical SBT is an ideal solution to problem posed in medical education regarding patient safety versus leering and exposure of doctor, with ability to diminish the risk associated with patient while providing a life-like scenario. Techniques used in SBT are used for training purposes and evaluation of competencies (7, 8). It may seem novel, however, SBT has been majorly used in aviation and military, whereas in medicine it has been widely used in anesthesiology (2, 5, 6). Impact of simulation on how medicine is taught has already led to changes in curriculums for healthcare providers, where participants have opportunity to practice, develop and master skills, via a process of try and repeat (9-11). SBT also allows one to refresh their skills or to practice unique and uncommon clinical presentations and be prepared for when they arise without putting patient at risk. This depiction of conditions from textbooks adds a layer of intrigue to scenario while developing heightened levels of enthusiasm. There are many educationists and pioneers who believe that SBT increases efficiency skill and knowledge (12-15).
Use of simulation as an advent of teaching and training in radiology has been a relevant factor dating as long back as case conference which is a part of radiology training. This method introduced two distinct types of simulation which were visual or auditory. Images are displayed to participants; they review and assess images then work towards a differential diagnosis while also adding in what should be done further. It is identical to what radiologist would experience in a routine day, thus adding high fidelity to the exercise. With progress and evolution of technology, mannequins were used as simulators to augment training process (15-18).
In medicine and radiology where sifting through images and reports can numb individual, resulting in a lack of concentration, disconnection with knowledge that is being disseminated. Hence, it was identified that a non-conventional method of teaching (gamification) had potential to be effective for students and residents (19). Many institutes also implemented a game-based educational system, which was enthusiastically received by participants, showing results of increased levels of understanding of ultrasound in clinical practice while also increasing their capabilities (20).
Main obstacle in simulation-based education (SBE) comes with evaluation of its outcomes, along with the problem of assessing effectiveness. Hence, Bandura proposed method of assessing self-efficacy (SE) as an able answer to this concern (21). Henceforth, assessing methodology and modernization of technology, world of education has also seen adrift from using routine teaching methods to more hands-on and interactive teaching modalities with incorporation of entertaining way to learn, such as competitions being held and conversion of lecture room into a game room, having students both enjoy and become more engaged in their learning (22).
Centre for Innovation in Medical Education (CIME) at The Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH) has proposed to incorporate teaching modality of gamification in a fun and interactive way, by holding first ever SonoGames (SG) in Pakistan, where radiology residents test their knowledge against each other while making whole processes enjoyable.
In Pakistan, game-based simulation training is not widely available and prevalent. This study provided a motive for Healthcare institutions to work on improving the understanding and integrating SBT programs in all specialties of health science. The objective of this study is to assess Radiology residents' knowledge, hands-on skills, and integration of knowledge into clinical decision making. Furthermore, it aims to evaluate SE of participants as a measure for competency using game-based simulation training program.