For the prediction for future climate, it is required to enhance our understanding of the Holocene climatic change. By estimating paleo-temperature, we attempted to examine the relationship between climatic changes and human activities in northern Japan. The alkenone SSTs showed a variation of 8.7 °C (14.5 °C to 23.2 °C). Jomon people living around Funka Bay were more dependent on marine products than in Honshu due to cooler climatic conditions. There are two Hypsithermal environments at Funka Bay around 4.6 cal. kyr BP and 1.2 cal. kyr BP. Sea levels for the last 7 kyrs have been controlled mainly by local/regional tectonic vertical movement. Therefore, the highstand never always corresponded to Hypsithermal environments. More than one driving forcing, rather than one, may control climatic/environmental change. The 4.2ka event in northern Japan could be characterized by cooling by a few degrees by the combination of reduced ESAM and El Niño mode. Another notable cooling event occurred in 1.0-0.8 cal. kyr BP due to the La Niña condition and reduced solar activities, which means that the Japanese archipelago never experienced Medieval Warm Event: instead, there was a Medieval Cold Event in Japan. The Okhotsk culture in Hokkaido prospered only under the Hypsithermal condition during the 5 th - 9 th centuries and subsequently it declined and was incorporated into the Satsumon culture under the cooler environmental conditions. For the Yayoi-era (2.9 cal. kyr BP-) and the following periods, our results are consistent with the previous results from Hiroshima Bay, western Japan, that cold periods (6 th - 7 th century BC, 3 rd century BC, 6 th century AD, 10 th -12 h century AD and 16 th century AD) coincided with major shifts in social systems in Japan.