High-performance polymers (HPPs) with self-lubricating properties are promising materials for bearing and tribological components that demand low friction and low wear in the absence of liquid lubrication. This study reports on the tribological performance of three advanced HPPs, namely ATSP-, PEEK-, and PI-based polymer composites. The experiments were performed using pin-on-disk configuration under dry sliding conditions and different environmental temperatures from 25 (room temperature) to 300 °C. The role of temperature on the formation of polymer transfer films on the steel counterpart was investigated using microscopy and profilometric measurements, and correlations were made to their tribological performance. From the three tested composites, ATSP-based composite exhibited the best overall performance with low friction and low wear.