The quality and quantity of groundwater resources are affected by landuse/landcover (LULC) dynamics, particularly the increasing urbanization coupled with high household wastewater discharge and decreasing open lands. This study evaluates temporal changes of groundwater quality for 2012 and 2019, its relation to Landuse/landcover, and its impact on Peshawar's residents (study area), Pakistan. A total of 105 and 112 groundwater samples were collected from tube wells in 2012 and 2019. Samples were then analyzed for seven standard water quality parameters (i.e., pH, Electric Conductivity (EC), Turbidity, Chloride, Calcium, Magnesium, and Nitrate). Patient data for waterborne diseases were also collected for the years 2012 and 2019 to relate the impact of groundwater quality on human health. Landsat satellite images were classified for the years 2012 and 2019 to observe Landuse/landcover dynamics concerning groundwater quality. Results manifested a decrease in groundwater quality for the year 2019 compared to 2012 and were more highlighted in highly populated areas. The nitrate concentration level was found high in the vicinity of agricultural areas due to the excessive use of nitrogenous fertilizers and pesticides, and thus the methemoglobinemia patients ratio increased by 14% (48- 62% for the year 2012 and 2019, respectively). Besides, Urinary Tract Infections, Peptic Ulcer, and Dental Caries diseases increased due to the high calcium and magnesium concentration. The overall results indicate that anthropogenic activities were the main driver of Spatio-temporal variability in groundwater quality of the study area. The study could help district health administration understand groundwater quality trends, make appropriate site-specific policies, and formulate future health regulations.