Professional knowledge regarding HBV prevention and control has a paramount contribution to the implementation of set strategies and planned activities. The level of Knowledge among medical and health science college students in this study was lower than study results done at University of Gondar (13). However, the knowledge level was higher than the study results conducted at Harmaya University. In the same way, this study result was higher than the study results conducted in Iraq (10, 14). The difference in knowledge level between this study and result from Iraq might be due to the fact that Iraq is more advanced in medical care and more emphasis might not be given to the communicable disease that may contribute for the knowledge level of health sciences, students. It is more ideal that when the emphasis is given to some issue, the knowledge level and the attitude also changed similarly.
In the present study, 88.5 % of respondents reported that there was a vaccine available for HBV. This was lower than 93.2% of the study conducted at Haramaya University(10)This difference might be most of the students who were attained in the colleges were inhabitant from a single region, whereas in Harmaya university from different regions and will share their knowledge.
Among the study participants, 61.3% of respondents knew that HBV has post-exposure prophylaxis. This result was lower than 67.1% of the study conducted in medical and health science college students, University of Gondar (13). While it was higher than a study conducted at Haramaya University, which accounts for 51.6% of the respondents(10). This difference might be the time gap of the present study from the previous study.
Prevention about HBV, 94.1% reported that transmission of HBV can be prevented this result was a little lower than 97.5% the study conducted at Haramaya University(10). While it was higher than 84.6% the study conducted at the University of Gondar(13).
A high proportion of the study participants 94.4% knew that HBV has a laboratory test. This result was in line with the study which was conducted at Haramaya University (10).
Regarding the transmission of HBV, 94.1 % mentioned contaminated blood and blood products, 74.4% open wound/cut, 93.6%Unsterilized syringe with needle and Surgical materials were listed.
While this result was lower than 97.2% and 93.5% the study conducted in University of Gondar respectively (13).It was higher than the study conducted in Haramaya University (10).
In this study, the overall attitude towards HBV transmission, prevention, and control among the participants was Unfavorable. Only 49.2 % of the respondents believe that the HBV vaccine is effective and safe. This finding was nearly two times lower than 81.7% and 86.2% studies conducted in the University of Gondar and Saudi Arabia among dentists respectively (13). This difference might be unlike HIV/AIDS HBV and its vaccine maybe not given stress in the current curricula. Feelings towards caring of people
with HBV was asked and the present study showed that 32.6% of respondents felt comfortable to take care patients, While this study was significantly More than 2 folds lower than 82.1% the study conducted in University of Gondar (13).
The present study showed that 63.8% reported that following infection control guideline will protect from being infected with HBV at work. This result was lower than 83.3% of the study conducted at the University of Gondar (13).
This study revealed that most of the study participants had poor practice towards HBV prevention and control, in spite of their good knowledge of transmission; control the disease and its prevention measures.
When compared with the reports from other studies, 4.1 % of respondents have screened for HBV and 3.3% have vaccinated against HBV. These findings were at least two times lower than 14.3% and 9.3% conducted In Haramaya and the University of Gondar, Ethiopia(10, 13).
Vaccination status against HBV of the respondents, this finding which was 3.3% lower than 4.9% and 13.4% conducted at Haramaya and University of Gondar(10, 13). Health education is one of the methods, which contributes to the creation of awareness and gears to prevention and control of the diseases. In this study, only 11.2% of participants participated related to HBV, which was nearly two times lower than 23.9% of the finding of Haramaya University, Ethiopia(10). This difference might be due to demand and access of vaccine is not proportional.
Regarding the multivariate analysis of knowledge on HBV is a dependent phenomenon which is affected by different socio-demographic factors. The level of knowledge was highly significant with increment age of the participants; those in the age category 20–24 were almost twelve times more likely Knowledgeable towards prevention and control of HBV than in the age category 19 and below and also being older than or equal to 25 years was almost twelve times more likely knowledgeable than the reference age. The possible reason might be when age increases, searching and updating for self-knowledge also increase.
Being unmarried was two times more likely to have good knowledge of HBV prevention as compared to those who were engaged. The possible reason might be, unmarried students are highly vulnerable for acquiring sexually transmitted infections, and this might enhance their health information-seeking behavior which helped them to be more knowledgeable towards prevention of HBV.
According to the current study; the year of students was associated with the attitude towards prevention of HBV. Those students who were 4th year and above were almost two times more likely to have a favorable attitude towards prevention of HBV as compared to 3rd-year students. This difference might be 4th year and above students take different courses respective to their department.
Those who have good practice almost 3 times more likely to have a favorable attitude towards prevention and control of HBV than those who have poor practice. Having good knowledge was positively associated with participation or to practice on prevention of HBV. Those who have good knowledge almost 2 times more likely to practice towards prevention and control of HBV. The difference might be knowledge is a prerequisite to practice on prevention and control of HBV. Having a favorable attitude was positively associated with practice on prevention and control of HBV. Those who have favorable attitude almost three times more likely to participate in the prevention and control of HBV.
Limitations of the study
Due to its cross-sectional nature of the study, it is difficult to establish a causal relationship between the predictor and response variables. In addition, it was not a mixed-method study where the qualitative study will try to explore in-depth reasons why students didn’t have a favorable attitude and good practice towards HBV prevention.