1 Ballard, M., Madore, A., Johnson, A., Keita, Y., Haag, E., Palazuelos, D., . . . Nirola, I. (2018). Concept Note: Community Health Workers (Vol. GHD-C11): Harvard Business Publishing.
2 McPake B, Edoka I, Witter S, Kielmann K, Taegtmeyer M, Dieleman M, et al. Cost-effectiveness of community-based practitioner programmes in Ethiopia, Indonesia and Kenya. Bull World Health Organ 2015 Sep 1;93(9):631-639A.
3 Lewin, S., Munabi-Babigumira, S., Glenton, C., Daniels, K., Bosch-Capblanch, X., van Wyk, B. E., . . . Scheel, I. B. (2010). Lay health workers in primary and community health care for maternal and child health and the management of infectious diseases. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(3). doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004015.pub3
4 Dahn, B., Woldemariam, A., Perry, H., Maeda, A., von Glahn, D., Panjabi, R., . . . Lu, C. (2015). Strengthening primary health care through community health workers: Investment case and financing recommendations.
5 Community Health Worker Incentives and Disincentives: How They Affect Motivation, Retention, and Sustainability https://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNACQ722.pdf
6 Lay workers in directly observed treatment (DOT) programmes for tuberculosis in high burden settings: Should they be paid? A review of behavioural perspectives https://www.ajol.info/index.php/ahs/article/view/6798
7 “Volunteers Are Not Paid Because They Are Priceless”: Community Health Worker Capacities and Values in an AIDS Treatment Intervention in Urban Ethiopia https://anthrosource.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/maq.12136?casa_token=yJE60BRFzmMAAAAA%3ALjXY-kF4ZKbBAHNvT4D02tcX1dQed5AjWGi_sQc9dw69YLUlVNZOsSBI-KlNnsgOGEip9iOuH5aXJF8k
8 Female Community Health Volunteers Program in Nepal: Perceptions, Attitudes and Experiences on Volunteerism among Female Community Health Volunteers https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Female-Community-Health-Volunteers-Program-in-and-Swechhya-Kamaraj/381d7e04ba44583c3432d1653e1597adbae57265
9 World Health Organization. WHO guideline on health policy and system support to optimize community health worker programmes. 2018 October 26.
10 Addati, L., Cattaneo, U., Esquivel, V., & Valarino, I. Care work and care jobs for the future of decent work. International Labour Organization. 2018 June 28.
11 Community Health Impact Coalition. Available from: www.chwimpact.org
12 Financing Alliance for Health. Available from: http://www.financingalliance.org/
13 Delbecq AL, Van de Ven AH. A group process model for problem identification and program planning. J Appl Behav Sci 1971;7:466–92.doi:10.1177/002188637100700404
15 Ballard M, Montgomery P. Systematic review of interventions for improving the performance of community health workers in low-income and middle-income countries. BMJ Open 2017;7:e014216.doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-014216pmid:http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29074507
16 Chamber of Deputies. Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil. 1988.
17 Diário da Câmara dos Deputados. Lei Nº 11.350. 2006 October 5. Available from: http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2004-2006/2006/Lei/L11350.htm
18 Ministério da Saúde. PORTARIA Nº 2.488. 2011 October 21. Available from: http://bvsms.saude.gov.br/bvs/saudelegis/gm/2011/prt2488_21_10_2011.html
19 Article 16 of Law No. 11,350/2006. Available from: http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2004-2006/2006/Lei/L11350.htm
20 Article 6 of Law No. 11,350/2006. Available from: http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2004-2006/2006/Lei/L11350.htm
21 Article 9-A, paragraph 3, of Law No. 11,350/2006. Available from: http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2004-2006/2006/Lei/L11350.htm
22 Diário da Câmara dos Deputados. Lei Nº 9.608. 1998 February 18. Available from: http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2004-2006/2006/Lei/L11350.htm
23 Chamber of Deputies. Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil. 1988.
24 Labour Act, 2003 (Act 651). Available from: http://www.melr.gov.gh/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/LABOUR-ACT-2003.pdf
25 Government of Ghana. National Community based Health Planning and Services Policy (CHPS). March 2016. Available from: https://www.ghanahealthservice.org/downloads/MOH_CHPS_Policy_Final.pdf
26 The Nigerian Labour Act cap L1 LFN 2004. Available from: https://lawsofnigeria.placng.org/laws/L1.pdf
27 Trade Unions Act, Chapter T14, LFN. 2004 (as amended by the Trade Union (Amendment) Act 2005). Available from: https://www.lawyard.ng/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/NATIONALl-MINIMUM-WAGE-2004.pdf
28 Community Health Practitioners (Registration, etc.) Act, Chapter C19, LFN. 2004. Available from: https://www.lawyard.ng/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/COMMUNITY-HEALTH-PRACTITIONERS-REGISTRATION-ETC.-ACT.pdf
29 The Nigerian Labour Act cap L1 LFN 2004. Available from: https://lawsofnigeria.placng.org/laws/L1.pdf
30 Rwanda Ministry of Health. National Community Health Policy. Kigali. June 2015. Available from: http://moh.gov.rw/fileadmin/templates/policies/NATIONAL_COMMUNITY_HEALTH_POLICY.pdf
31 Rwanda Ministry of Health. National Community Health Strategic Plan. Kigali. 2013. Available from: http://www.moh.gov.rw/fileadmin/templates/CHD_Docs/CHD-Strategic_plan.pdf
32 Rwanda Ministry of Health. Health Sector Policy. Kigali. January 2015. Available from: http://moh.gov.rw/fileadmin/templates/policies/Health_Sector_Policy___19th_January_2015.pdf
33 CHW Central: Rwanda Community Health Worker Program. Available from: http://www.chwcentral.org/sites/default/ files/Rwanda%20- %20Rwanda%27s%20Community%20He alth%20Worker%20Program.pdf
34 Shapira, Gil, et al. Effects of performance incentives for community health worker cooperatives in Rwanda. The World Bank, 2017. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/573571494939902839/pdf/WPS8059.pdf
35 South Africa Department of Health. Policy Framework and Strategy for Ward-Based Primary Healthcare Outreach Teams. Pretoria. Available from: https://rhap.org.za/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/Policy-WBPHCOT-4-April-2018-1.pdf
36 Public Health and Social Development Sectoral Bargaining Council. Agreement on the Standardisation of Remuneration for Community Health Workers in the Department of Health. 12 June 2018. https://www.phsdsbc.org.za/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/RESOLUTION-1-OF-2018-AGREEMENT-ON-THE-STANDARDISATI ON-OF-REMUNERATION-FOR-COMMUNITY-HEALTH-WORKERS-IN-THE-DEPARTMENT-OF-HEALTH.pdf
37 The LRA, BCEA, Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998 and the Occupational Health and Safety Act 85 of 1993
38 Cometto, Giorgio, et al. "Health policy and system support to optimise community health worker programmes: an abridged WHO guideline." The Lancet Global Health 6.12 (2018): e1397-e1404.
39 Unless otherwise indicated, information on CHW job demands and hours adapted from: USAID. “Health for the People: National Community Health Worker Programs from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe” (2020)
40 Ntsua, Stephen, Placide Tapsoba, Gloria Quansah Asare, and Frank K. Nyonator. 2012. "Repositioning community-based family planning in Ghana: A case study of Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS)," Case study report. Washington, DC: Population Council.
41 Okoroafor, S., Ngobua, S., Titus, M. et al. Applying the workload indicators of staffing needs method in determining frontline health workforce staffing for primary level facilities in Rivers state Nigeria. glob health res policy 4, 35 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1186/s41256-019-0125-z
42 LSTM, MOH/Rwanda, UNICEF, Rwanda Biomedical Center. Comprehensive Evaluation of the Community Health Program in Rwanda: Final Report. Liverpool, England and Kigali, Rwanda. (2017). Available from: https://www.medbox.org/document/comprehensive-evaluation-of-the-community-health-program-in-rwanda-final-report#GO
43 LSTM, MOH/Rwanda, UNICEF, Rwanda Biomedical Center. Comprehensive Evaluation of the Community Health Program in Rwanda: Final Report. Liverpool, England and Kigali, Rwanda. (2017). Available from: https://www.medbox.org/document/comprehensive-evaluation-of-the-community-health-program-in-rwanda-final-report#GO
44 Farmer, Paul. "Pathologies of power." Health, human rights and the new war on the poor. Berkeley, University of California Press (2003).
45 Ballard, Madeleine, and Ryan Schwarz. "Employing practitioner expertise in optimizing community healthcare systems." Healthcare. Vol. 7. No. 3. Elsevier, 2019.
46 Lu C, Palazuelos D, Luan Y, Sachs SE, Mitnick CD, Rhatigan J, Perry HB. Development assistance for community health workers in 114 low-and middle-income countries, 2007–2017. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2020 Jan 1;98(1):30.
47 Farmer, Paul. Partner to the poor: a Paul Farmer reader. Vol. 23. Univ of California Press, 2010.