Although India has made significant progress in institutional delivery after the implementation of the National Rural Health Mission under which the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) is a sub-programme which played a vital role in the increase of institutional delivery in public facilities. Therefore, this paper aims to provide an understanding of the JSY coverage at the district level in India. Further, it tries to carve out the factors responsible for the regional disparity of JSY coverage at district levels.
The study used the National Family Health Survey data, which is a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2015-16, India. The sample size of this study was 148,145 women aged 15-49 years who gave last birth in the institution during five years preceding the survey. Bivariate and multivariate regression analysis was used to fulfill the study objectives. Additionally, Moran’s I statistics and bivariate Local Indicator for Spatial Association (LISA) maps were used to understand spatial dependence and clustering of JSY coverage. Ordinary least square, spatial lag and spatial error models were used to examine the correlates of JSY utilization.
The value of spatial-autocorrelation for JSY was 0.71 which depicts the high dependence of the JSY coverage over districts of India. The overall coverage of JSY in India is 36.4% and it highly varied across different regions, districts, and even socioeconomic groups. The spatial error model depicts that if in a district the women with no schooling status increase by 10% then the benefits of JSY get increased by 2.3%. Similarly, if in a district the women from poor wealth quintile, it increases by 10% the benefits of JSY also increased by 4.6%. However, the coverage of JSY made greater imperative to understand it due to its clustering among districts of specific states only.
It is well reflected in the EAGs states in terms of spatial-inequality in service coverage. There is a need to universalize the JSY programme at a very individual level. And, it is required to revisit the policy strategy and the implementation plans at regional or district levels.