To explore the relationship between maternal-neonatal clinical data and the changes of cord blood amino acid and carnitine levels between pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) when glycosylated hemoglobin levels of 5.5%-6.4% excluded diabetic medicine as GDMa group and the control group.
In all, 312 qualified participants were recruited with permission from the ethical department of the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University and divided into two groups (GDMa and non-GDM) after adjusting for maternal age and body mass index (BMI) between the 1 June 2017 and 30 April 2020. All maternal-neonatal data were collected and analysed at the centre.
Interestingly, glycine in cord blood was not only significantly different between groups(594.19 vs 407.45, P < 0.001), but also associated among those pregnant women in GDM when glycosylated hemoglobin levels of 5.5%-6.4% through the standard of diet control and exercise (b = 0.449, P = 0.010). Meanwhile, neonatal hypoglycemia had the positive association with GDM monitoring glycosylated hemoglobin levels of 5.5%-6.4% (P = 0.031, OR 5.77 95%CI[1.18, 28.36]), but none of correlations with umbilical cord blood of amino acids and carnitines.
The study identifies some differences and relationships in maternal-neonatal data only when GDMa group, glycosylated hemoglobin levels of 5.5%-6.4% without diabetic medicine, compared with the control group which adjusted by age and BMI. Particularly, umbilical cord blood of glycine levels is related to the diabetic status of glycosylated hemoglobin 5.5%-6.4% in GDM during pregnancy and could be potential diabetic mechanism by maternal-fetal interface.