Soluble aggregates of the microtubule-associated protein tau have been challenging to assemble and characterize, despite their important role in the development of tauopathies. We found that sequential hyperphosphorylation by PKA in conjugation with either GSK3-β or SAPK4 enabled recombinant wild-type (WT) tau of isoform 0N4R to spontaneously polymerize into small amorphous aggregates in vitro. We employed tandem mass spectrometry to determine the phosphorylation sites and the degree of phosphorylation, and super-resolution microscopy and electron microscopy to characterize the morphology of aggregates formed. Functionally, in comparison with the unmodified aggregates, which require heparin induction to assemble, these self-assembled hyperphosphorylated tau aggregates more efficiently disrupt membrane bilayers and induce Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent inflammatory responses. Together, our results demonstrate that tau hyperphosphorylation is potentially damaging to cells, providing a mechanistic model of how hyperphosphorylation of tau aggregates drives neuroinflammation in tauopathies.