The current study used a snowball sampling approach to distribute questionnaires online in Mainland China between 23 and 29 February 2020. The questionnaires were distributed via WeChat, Tencent QQ, and other public platforms. When participants completed the questionnaire, they forwarded it to their own WeChat circle of friends or other public platforms to expand the sample size. Each IP address could only be used once. The inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) 18–65-years-old, (2) native Chinese residents able to complete the questionnaires on the cellphone or computer, (3) informed consent. The exclusion criteria were: (1) unable to read correctly or use a computer or cellphone to complete the questionnaires, (2) refused to participate in the research.
In order to control bias, the questionnaires were initially distributed in the same number in each provincial capital city. The daily sample size was based on a national survey experience, and the sample size was set to be more than 1500 .
A total of 66152 questionnaires were returned. On February 26 and 27, only 5 individuals filled out the questionnaire. Therefore, the data of these two days were excluded. Five thousand nine hundred forty-eight questionnaires were excluded such due to missing data, incomplete information, or extreme data,. After deleting these substandard responses, 60199 valid questionnaires were analyzed, with an effective rate of 91%.
The current study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, China. All participants confirmed the informed consent before answering the questionnaires.
Self-compiled descriptive characteristics questionnaire
Demographic data, work environment, family conditions, and social activities were covered by 13 items, including gender, age, education level, occupation, marital status, family structure in childhood, whether the participant was an only child, parenting style in childhood, whether the participant lived with his parents until the age of 10, number of close friends, the collective atmosphere in work/school, the management style of work/school, and social activities of last two weeks. According to Baumrind’s research , parenting style in childhood was divided into authoritarian, neglectful, permissive, and democratic. The management style of work/school was divided into three most common types of leadership styles, i.e., autocratic, laissez-faire, and democratic, as defined by Kurt Lewin .
The self-rating depression scale (SDS)  contained 20 items, and the design was based on the diagnostic criteria for depression. The subjects rated each item using a 4-point Likert scale based on how they have felt during the past several days. The SDS's raw sum score was 20–80; however, the results were presented as the SDS index, which is obtained by expressing the raw score converted to a 100-points scale. The cut-off value of the SDS standard score was 53, 53–62 for mild depressive symptoms, 63–72 for moderate depressive symptoms, and >73 with severe depressive symptoms according to the Chinese norm . The Chinese version had good internal consistency reliability of the total scale (α = 0.86) . The Cronbach’s α in the current study was 0.63.
The state anxiety inventory (SAI) is a scale from the state-trait anxiety inventory , containing 20 items to evaluate state anxiety under stress, using a 4-point Likert scale. The total score ranged from 20–80, according to the score boundaries: 20–39 without anxiety symptoms, 40–47 with mild anxiety symptoms, 48–54 with moderate anxiety symptoms, and 55~80 with severe anxiety symptoms. The Chinese version had good internal consistency reliability of the total scale (α = 0.91) . The Cronbach’s α in the current study was 0.68.
Negative cognitive processing bias questionnaire (NCPBQ)
NCPBQ is a 16-item self-report measure in Chinese, used for assessing the negative attention bias, negative memory bias, and rumination, using a 4-point Likert scale (1 = not match; 4 = perfect match) . An example of an item is “I always remember my mistakes clearly.” Higher total scores indicate negative cognitive processing bias. It had good internal consistency reliability of the total scale (α = 0.89) in college students' normal population. The Cronbach’s α of the current study was 0.84, and that of negative attention bias, negative memory bias, and rumination was 0.78, 0.68, and 0.72, respectively.
Confirmed growth rate and death growth rate
The confirmed growth rate was calculated as the ratio between the cumulative number of confirmed cases announced on the day and on the previous day to the cumulative number of confirmed cases announced on the previous day. The death growth rate was the ratio of the difference between the cumulative number of deaths announced on the day and on the previous day to the cumulative number of deaths announced on the previous day. The number of confirmed cases and deaths was provided by the National Health Commission of China .
Depressed group and anxiety group
According to the SDS scoring criteria, the participants were divided into non-depressed, mild depressive symptoms, moderate depressive symptoms, and severe depressive symptom groups. They were also divided into non-anxiety, mild anxiety symptom, moderate anxiety symptom, and severe anxiety symptom groups according to the SAI scoring criteria.
The data were analyzed using software SPSS 23.0 and SAS 9.4. Measurement data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation ( ± sd). The age data were divided down by the maximum age, with every ten years as an age group. Enumeration data were expressed by the number of people (%). Pearson’s correlation coefficient evaluated the correlation between the severities of depressive and anxiety symptoms, and P < 0.05 on double sides was considered to be statistically significant. The analysis of the correlations between characteristics (gender, age, education level, occupation, family structure in childhood, whether the participant was an only child, parenting style in childhood, whether the participant lived with his parents until the age of 10, number of close friends, the collective atmosphere in work/school, the management style of work/school, and social activities of last two weeks) and anxiety or depressive symptoms initially were assessed by the chi-square test. The correlations between negative cognitive processing bias (negative attention bias, negative memory bias, and rumination), confirmed growth rate, death growth rate, and anxiety or depressive symptoms were initially assessed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The variables with P < 0.05 were entered in the ordered multiple logistic regression analysis models by the stepwise method.