Cables are commonly used for roadway support in coal mines. Traditionally, support schemes show characteristics of excessive strength and resource waste; therefore, determining how to scientifically and economically arrange the distribution of cables is important for engineering practice. To obtain the best distribution of cables, in this paper, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm and FLAC3D numerical simulation were combined to conduct numerical simulations. Finally, the best cable distribution considering safety and economy was determined. By analyzing the numerical simulation results, it can be concluded that the PSO algorithm can be applied to determine the optimal cable distribution for roadway support and can be applied to engineering practice. In addition, the best cable arrangement of a roadway under different lateral stress coefficients was obtained, and it can be concluded that the cable arrangement should be adjusted according to specific circumstances.