1. Gabriel RA, Sztain JF, A'Court AM, Hylton DJ, Waterman RS, Schmidt U. Postoperative mortality and morbidity following non-cardiac surgery in a healthy patient population. J Anesth. 2018;32(1):112-9.
2. Eamer G, Al-Amoodi MJH, Holroyd-Leduc J, Rolfson DB, Warkentin LM, Khadaroo RG. Review of risk assessment tools to predict morbidity and mortality in elderly surgical patients. Am J Surg. 2018;216(3):585-94.
3. ACS National Surgical Quality Improvement Program® (ACS NSQIP®) Home Page on the internet [Available from: https://www.facs.org/quality-programs/acs-nsqip.
4. Ingraham AM, Richards KE, Hall BL, Ko CY. Quality improvement in surgery: the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program approach. Adv Surg. 2010;44:251-67.
5. Bilimoria KY, Liu Y, Paruch JL, Zhou L, Kmiecik TE, Ko CY, et al. Development and evaluation of the universal ACS NSQIP surgical risk calculator: a decision aid and informed consent tool for patients and surgeons. J Am Coll Surg. 2013;217(5):833-42 e1-3.
6. O'Neill AC, Bagher S, Barandun M, Hofer SO, Zhong T. Can the American College of Surgeons NSQIP surgical risk calculator identify patients at risk of complications following microsurgical breast reconstruction? J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2016;69(10):1356-62.
7. Prasad KG, Nelson BG, Deig CR, Schneider AL, Moore MG. ACS NSQIP Risk Calculator: An Accurate Predictor of Complications in Major Head and Neck Surgery? Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016;155(5):740-2.
8. Bruceta M, De Souza L, Carr ZJ, Bonavia A, Kunselman AR, Karamchandani K. Post-operative intensive care unit admission after elective non-cardiac surgery: A single-center analysis of the NSQIP database. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2020;64(3):319-28.
9. Adogwa O, Martin JR, Huang K, Verla T, Fatemi P, Thompson P, et al. Preoperative serum albumin level as a predictor of postoperative complication after spine fusion. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2014;39(18):1513-9.
10. Nguyen GC, Du L, Chong RY, Jackson TD. Hypoalbuminaemia and Postoperative Outcomes in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: the NSQIP Surgical Cohort. J Crohns Colitis. 2019;13(11):1433-8.
11. Garg T, Chen LY, Kim PH, Zhao PT, Herr HW, Donat SM. Preoperative serum albumin is associated with mortality and complications after radical cystectomy. BJU Int. 2014;113(6):918-23.
12. Gibbs J, Cull W, Henderson W, Daley J, Hur K, Khuri SF. Preoperative serum albumin level as a predictor of operative mortality and morbidity: results from the National VA Surgical Risk Study. Arch Surg. 1999;134(1):36-42.
13. Kim S, McClave SA, Martindale RG, Miller KR, Hurt RT. Hypoalbuminemia and Clinical Outcomes: What is the Mechanism behind the Relationship? Am Surg. 2017;83(11):1220-7.
14. Wilson IB, Cleary PD. Linking clinical variables with health-related quality of life. A conceptual model of patient outcomes. JAMA. 1995;273(1):59-65.
15. Albright EL, Davenport DL, Roth JS. Preoperative functional health status impacts outcomes after ventral hernia repair. Am Surg. 2012;78(2):230-4.
16. Curtis GL, Hammad A, Anis HK, Higuera CA, Little BE, Darwiche HF. Dependent Functional Status is a Risk Factor for Perioperative and Postoperative Complications After Total Hip Arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 2019;34(7S):S348-S51.
17. Vaid S, Bell T, Grim R, Ahuja V. Predicting risk of death in general surgery patients on the basis of preoperative variables using American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data. Perm J. 2012;16(4):10-7.
18. Fleisher LA, Fleischmann KE, Auerbach AD, Barnason SA, Beckman JA, Bozkurt B, et al. 2014 ACC/AHA guideline on perioperative cardiovascular evaluation and management of patients undergoing noncardiac surgery: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines. Developed in collaboration with the American College of Surgeons, American Society of Anesthesiologists, American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Heart Rhythm Society, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists, and Society of Vascular Medicine Endorsed by the Society of Hospital Medicine. J Nucl Cardiol. 2015;22(1):162-215.
19. Hughes MJ, Hackney RJ, Lamb PJ, Wigmore SJ, Christopher Deans DA, Skipworth RJE. Prehabilitation Before Major Abdominal Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. World J Surg. 2019;43(7):1661-8.
20. Hijazi Y, Gondal U, Aziz O. A systematic review of prehabilitation programs in abdominal cancer surgery. Int J Surg. 2017;39:156-62.
21. Davenport DL, Bowe EA, Henderson WG, Khuri SF, Mentzer RM, Jr. National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) risk factors can be used to validate American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status Classification (ASA PS) levels. Ann Surg. 2006;243(5):636-41; discussion 41-4.
22. Cuvillon P, Nouvellon E, Marret E, Albaladejo P, Fortier LP, Fabbro-Perray P, et al. American Society of Anesthesiologists' physical status system: a multicentre Francophone study to analyse reasons for classification disagreement. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2011;28(10):742-7.
23. Sankar A, Johnson SR, Beattie WS, Tait G, Wijeysundera DN. Reliability of the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status scale in clinical practice. Br J Anaesth. 2014;113(3):424-32.