Climatic events have a significant impact on south-western coastal agriculture in Bangladesh. The purpose of this study was to assess household’s agricultural vulnerability to climate-induced disasters and to identify the sub-indicators of adaptive capacity that determine the agricultural vulnerability to climate-induced disasters of south-western coastal households in Bangladesh. The vulnerability has been calculated by taking the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concept through an Agricultural Vulnerability Index (AVI). Then, the ordered logit model has been employed to identify the key sub-indicators of adaptive capacity that determine the agricultural vulnerability to climate-induced disasters. A survey of 346 household heads from the two villages (181 household’s head from Sutarkhali and 165 household’s head from Nalian) of Sutarkhali Union of Dacope Upazila under Khulna District has been used in this study. Findings reveal that the mean score of Sutarkhali is 0.703 (high) for exposure, 0.762 (high) for sensitivity, 0.397 (low) for adaptive capacity and finally, the AVI is 0.689 (high). In the same fashion, Nalian has an average score of 0.658 (high) for exposure, 0.681 (high) for sensitivity, 0.410 (low) for adaptive capacity, and finally 0.643 (high) for the AVI. Non-farm employment, ownership of livestock, access to irrigation pump, improved crop diversification/ saline tolerant High Yielding Variety (HYV) crops, and access to farm credit have been found statistically significant sub-indicators of adaptive capacity that determine the agricultural vulnerability of both study sites. Finally, it is recommended that the intervention required for coastal adaptation of agriculture should be initiated by respective authorities.