One of the critical constraints hindering the transformation of African agriculture in general, and Nigerian agriculture in particular, is gender disparities in productivity. This study, therefore, examines gender inequality in farm productivity and sources of the productivity differentials among rice farmers in Nigeria, using the Oaxaca-Blinder (OB) gender decomposition model. The results revealed an uneven situation between men and women, leading to a gender productivity gap of about 29% in favour of men. Thus, female-managed plots are 29% less productive than male-managed plots. The decomposition of the sources of gender productivity differences shows that marital status, education, farm size and access to market information are the significant determinants of the endowment factor that contribute to about 15% of the productivity gap. The study, therefore, concludes that gender productivity inequalities exist in the Nigerian agricultural sector, hence, paying attention to these productivity gaps and factors contributing to these gaps is crucial in formulating policy interventions oriented towards women empowerment.