Many vital processes in the eye are under circadian regulation, and circadian dysfunction has emerged as a potential driver of eye aging. Dietary restriction is one of the most robust lifespan-extending therapies and amplifies circadian rhythms with age. Herein, we demonstrate that dietary restriction extends lifespan in D. melanogaster by promoting circadian homeostatic processes that protect the visual system from age- and light-associated damage. Disrupting circadian rhythms in the eye by inhibiting the transcription factor, Clock (CLK), or CLK-output genes, accelerated visual senescence, induced a systemic immune response, and shortened lifespan. Flies subjected to dietary restriction were protected from the lifespan-shortening effects of photoreceptor activation. Inversely, photoreceptor inactivation, achieved via mutating rhodopsin or housing flies in constant darkness, primarily extended lifespan in flies reared on a high-nutrient diet. Our findings establish the eye as a diet-sensitive modulator of lifespan and indicate that vision is an antagonistically pleiotropic process that contributes to organismal aging.