H. Laufman, “What’s wrong with our operating rooms?,” Am. J. Surg., vol. 122, no. 3, pp. 332–343, Sep. 1971, doi: 10.1016/0002-9610(71)90253-4.
 M. Essex-Lopresti, “Operating theatre design,” The Lancet, vol. 353, no. 9157, pp. 1007–1010, Mar. 1999, doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(98)11356-9.
 B. Rostenberg and P. R. Barach, “Design of cardiovascular operating rooms for tomorrow’s technology and clinical practice — Part 2,” Prog. Pediatr. Cardiol., vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 57–65, Jan. 2012, doi: 10.1016/j.ppedcard.2011.12.010.
 G. Palmer et al., “Realizing improved patient care through human-centered operating room design: a human factors methodology for observing flow disruptions in the cardiothoracic operating room,” Anesthesiology, vol. 119, no. 5, pp. 1066–1077, Nov. 2013, doi: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829f68cf.
 A. Joseph, A. Khoshkenar, K. M. Taaffe, K. Catchpole, H. Machry, and S. Bayramzadeh, “Minor flow disruptions, traffic-related factors and their effect on major flow disruptions in the operating room,” BMJ Qual. Saf., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 276–283, Apr. 2019, doi: 10.1136/bmjqs-2018-007957.
 B. G. Sobolev, V. Sanchez, and C. Vasilakis, “Systematic Review of the Use of Computer Simulation Modeling of Patient Flow in Surgical Care,” J. Med. Syst., vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 1–16, Feb. 2011, doi: 10.1007/s10916-009-9336-z.
 R. A. Marjamaa, P. M. Torkki, E. J. Hirvensalo, and O. A. Kirvelä, “What is the best workflow for an operating room? A simulation study of five scenarios,” Health Care Manag. Sci., vol. 12, no. 2, p. 142, Jun. 2009, doi: 10.1007/s10729-008-9073-8.
 D. C. Krupka and W. S. Sandberg, “Operating room design and its impact on operating room economics,” Curr. Opin. Anesthesiol., vol. 19, no. 2, p. 185, Apr. 2006, doi: 10.1097/01.aco.0000192795.64678.e7.
 Q.-L. Lin, H.-C. Liu, D.-J. Wang, and L. Liu, “Integrating systematic layout planning with fuzzy constraint theory to design and optimize the facility layout for operating theatre in hospitals,” J. Intell. Manuf., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 87–95, Feb. 2015, doi: 10.1007/s10845-013-0764-8.
 G. Weiss, R. von Baer, and S. Riedl, “The influence of the optimal use of space on the efficient running of an operating theatre,” Chir., vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 174–179, Feb. 2002, doi: 10.1007/s00104-001-0414-0.
 A. Chraibi, I. H. Osman, and S. Kharraja, “Adaptive layout for operating theatre in hospitals: different mathematical models for optimal layouts,” Ann. Oper. Res., vol. 272, no. 1, pp. 493–527, Jan. 2019, doi: 10.1007/s10479-018-2799-x.
 T. Gormley et al., “Methodology for analyzing environmental quality indicators in a dynamic operating room environment,” Am. J. Infect. Control, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 354–359, Apr. 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2016.11.001.
 A. Baumgart, C. Denz, H.-J. Bender, and A. Schleppers, “How Work Context Affects Operating Room Processes: Using Data Mining and Computer Simulation to Analyze Facility and Process Design,” Qual. Manag. Healthc., vol. 18, no. 4, p. 305, Dec. 2009, doi: 10.1097/QMH.0b013e3181bee2c6.
 G. Brogmus, W. Leone, L. Butler, and E. Hernandez, “Best Practices in OR Suite Layout and Equipment Choices to Reduce Slips, Trips, and Falls,” AORN J., vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 384–398, Sep. 2007, doi: 10.1016/j.aorn.2007.06.003.
 G. Nollert and S. Wich, “Planning a cardiovascular hybrid operating room: the technical point of view,” Heart Surg. Forum, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. E125-130, Jun. 2009, doi: 10.1532/HSF98.20091033.
 W. K. Winer and T. L. Lyons, “Suggested set-up and layout of instruments and equipment for advanced operative laparoscopy,” J. Am. Assoc. Gynecol. Laparosc., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 231–234, Feb. 1995, doi: 10.1016/S1074-3804(05)80025-8.
 T. Korkiakangas, S.-M. Weldon, J. Bezemer, and R. Kneebone, “Nurse–surgeon object transfer: Video analysis of communication and situation awareness in the operating theatre,” Int. J. Nurs. Stud., vol. 51, no. 9, pp. 1195–1206, Sep. 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2014.01.007.
 S. C. Brailsford, T. Bolt, C. Connell, J. H. Klein, and B. Patel, “Stakeholder engagement in health care simulation,” in Proceedings of the 2009 Winter Simulation Conference (WSC), 2009, pp. 1840–1849, doi: 10.1109/WSC.2009.5429190.
 M. Jahangirian, S. J. E. Taylor, J. Eatock, L. K. Stergioulas, and P. M. Taylor, “Causal study of low stakeholder engagement in healthcare simulation projects,” J. Oper. Res. Soc., vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 369–379, Mar. 2015, doi: 10.1057/jors.2014.1.
 N. Mustafee, K. Katsaliaki, and S. J. E. Taylor, “Profiling Literature in Healthcare Simulation:,” SIMULATION, Feb. 2010, doi: 10.1177/0037549709359090.
 K. Kotiadis, A. A. Tako, and C. Vasilakis, “A participative and facilitative conceptual modelling framework for discrete event simulation studies in healthcare,” J. Oper. Res. Soc., vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 197–213, Feb. 2014, doi: 10.1057/jors.2012.176.
 T. Cooke-Davies, “The ‘real’ success factors on projects,” Int. J. Proj. Manag., vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 185–190, Apr. 2002, doi: 10.1016/S0263-7863(01)00067-9.
 A. A. Tako and S. Robinson, “Is simulation in health different?,” J. Oper. Res. Soc., vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 602–614, Apr. 2015, doi: 10.1057/jors.2014.25.
 E. K. Peavey, J. Zoss, and N. Watkins, “Simulation and Mock-Up Research Methods to Enhance Design Decision Making,” HERD Health Environ. Res. Des. J., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 133–144, Apr. 2012, doi: 10.1177/193758671200500313.
 S. Bayramzadeh, A. Joseph, D. Allison, J. Shultz, and J. Abernathy, “Using an integrative mock-up simulation approach for evidence-based evaluation of operating room design prototypes,” Appl. Ergon., vol. 70, pp. 288–299, Jul. 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.apergo.2018.03.011.
 J. Thalen and M. van der Voort, “Facilitating user involvement in product design through virtual reality,” Virtual Real.-Hum. Comput. Interact., pp. 17–22, 2012.
 A. Baumgart, A. Zoeller, C. Denz, H. j Bender, A. Heinzl, and E. Badreddin, “Using Computer Simulation in Operating Room Management: Impacts on Process Engineering and Performance,” in 40th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 2007. HICSS 2007, 2007, pp. 131–131, doi: 10.1109/HICSS.2007.593.
 A. M. Law and W. D. Kelton, Simulation modeling and analysis, vol. 3. McGraw-Hill New York, 2000.
 G. S. Fishman, Discrete-Event Simulation: Modeling, Programming, and Analysis. Springer Science & Business Media, 2013.
 P. Völkner and B. Werners, “A simulation-based decision support system for business process planning,” Fuzzy Sets Syst., vol. 125, no. 3, pp. 275–287, Feb. 2002, doi: 10.1016/S0165-0114(00)00105-6.
 J. Van Ooteghem, S. Verbrugge, K. Casier, and G. Casier, “Application of a Discrete Event Simulator for Healthcare Processes:,” 2015, pp. 241–246, doi: 10.5220/0005887702410246.
 A. Inès, Z. Hayfa, and H. Slim, “Workflow tool to Model and simulate patients paths in Pediatric Emergency Department,” p. 7, 2013.
 A. Goienetxea Uriarte, E. Ruiz Zúñiga, M. Urenda Moris, A. H. C. Ng, C. Karlberg, and P. Wallqvist, “Improved system design of an emergency department through simulation-based multiobjective-optimization,” presented at the 6th edition of the modeFRONTIER International Users’ Meeting Conference. Trieste, Italy, May 12-13, 2014, 2014.
 K. Steins, “Discrete-Event Simulation for Hospital Resource Planning : Possibilities and Requirements,” DIVA, 2010.
 S. Azari-Rad, A. Yontef, D. M. Aleman, and D. R. Urbach, “A simulation model for perioperative process improvement,” Oper. Res. Health Care, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 22–30, Mar. 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.orhc.2013.12.003.
 S. M. Ballard and M. E. Kuhl, “The use of Simulation to Determine Maximum Capacity in the Surgical Suite Operating Room,” in Proceedings of the 2006 Winter Simulation Conference, 2006, pp. 433–438, doi: 10.1109/WSC.2006.323112.
 H. Saadouli, B. Jerbi, A. Dammak, L. Masmoudi, and A. Bouaziz, “A stochastic optimization and simulation approach for scheduling operating rooms and recovery beds in an orthopedic surgery department,” Comput. Ind. Eng., vol. 80, pp. 72–79, Feb. 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.cie.2014.11.021.
 A. Sciomachen, E. Tanfani, and A. Testi, “Simulation models for optimal schedules of operating theatres,” Int. J. Simul., vol. 6, no. 12–13, pp. 26–34, 2005.
 M. J. Persson and J. A. Persson, “Analysing management policies for operating room planning using simulation,” Health Care Manag. Sci., vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 182–191, Jun. 2010, doi: 10.1007/s10729-009-9122-y.
 A. Komashie, A. Mousavi, and J. Gore, “Using Discrete Event Simulation (DES) to Manage Theatre Operations in Healthcare: An Audit-Based Case Study,” in Tenth International Conference on Computer Modeling and Simulation (uksim 2008), 2008, pp. 360–365, doi: 10.1109/UKSIM.2008.112.
 B. Cardoen, E. Demeulemeester, and J. Beliën, “Operating room planning and scheduling: A literature review,” Eur. J. Oper. Res., vol. 201, no. 3, pp. 921–932, Mar. 2010, doi: 10.1016/j.ejor.2009.04.011.
 F. Fernández-Gutiérrez, I. Barnett, B. Taylor, G. Houston, and A. Melzer, “Framework for detailed workflow analysis and modelling for simulation of multi-modal image-guided interventions,” J. Enterp. Inf. Manag., vol. 26, no. 1/2, pp. 75–90, 2013.
 F. Fernández-Gutiérrez, M. Wolska-Krawczyk, A. Buecker, J. G. Houston, and A. Melzer, “Workflow optimisation for multimodal imaging procedures: a case of combined X-ray and MRI-guided TACE,” Minim. Invasive Ther. Allied Technol., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 31–38, 2017.
 A. Khoshkenar et al., “Simulation-based design and traffic flow improvements in the operating room,” in 2017 Winter Simulation Conference (WSC), 2017, pp. 2975–2983, doi: 10.1109/WSC.2017.8248019.
 L. Shan, B. Shan, D. Graham, and A. Saxena, “Total hip replacement: a systematic review and meta-analysis on mid-term quality of life,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 389–406, Mar. 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.joca.2013.12.006.
 S. M. Kurtz et al., “International survey of primary and revision total knee replacement,” Int. Orthop., vol. 35, no. 12, pp. 1783–1789, Dec. 2011, doi: 10.1007/s00264-011-1235-5.
 R. O. Darouiche, “Treatment of Infections Associated with Surgical Implants,” N. Engl. J. Med., vol. 350, no. 14, pp. 1422–1429, Apr. 2004, doi: 10.1056/NEJMra035415.
 G. de Lissovoy, K. Fraeman, V. Hutchins, D. Murphy, D. Song, and B. B. Vaughn, “Surgical site infection: Incidence and impact on hospital utilization and treatment costs,” Am. J. Infect. Control, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 387–397, Jun. 2009, doi: 10.1016/j.ajic.2008.12.010.
 O. Karhu, P. Kansi, and I. Kuorinka, “Correcting working postures in industry: A practical method for analysis,” Appl. Ergon., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 199–201, Dec. 1977.
 I. J. Kant, L. C. de Jong, M. van Rijssen-Moll, and P. J. Borm, “A survey of static and dynamic work postures of operating room staff,” Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 423–428, 1992.
 K. Radermacher, C. V. Pichler, and G. Rau, “Aspects of ergonomics in Minimal-Invasive Surgery — Analysis and approaches,” in 1992 14th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 1992, vol. 4, pp. 1564–1565, doi: 10.1109/IEMBS.1992.5761926.
 R. Berguer, G. T. Rab, H. Abu-Ghaida, A. Alarcon, and J. Chung, “A comparison of surgeons’ posture during laparoscopic and open surgical procedures,” Surg. Endosc., vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 139–142, Feb. 1997, doi: 10.1007/s004649900316.
 J. A. Engels, J. A. Landeweerd, and Y. Kant, “An OWAS-based analysis of nurses’ working postures,” Ergonomics, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 909–919, May 1994, doi: 10.1080/00140139408963700.
 J. D. Lester, S. Hsu, and C. S. Ahmad, “Occupational hazards facing orthopedic surgeons,” Am. J. Orthop. Belle Mead NJ, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 132–139, Mar. 2012.
 S. M. Alqahtani, M. M. Alzahrani, and M. Tanzer, “Adult Reconstructive Surgery: A High-Risk Profession for Work-Related Injuries,” J. Arthroplasty, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 1194–1198, Jun. 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.arth.2015.12.025.
 J. Neumann, C. Angrick, A. Roth, and T. Neumuth, “Ergonomic Assessment of Operating Room Setups for Orthopedic Reconstructive Surgery,” in 18. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Computer und Roboter-assistierte Chirurgie (CURAC), Reutlingen, 2019.
 “DELMIA - Dassault Systèmes,” 13-Jun-2018. [Online]. Available: https://www.3ds.com/products-services/delmia/. [Accessed: 13-Jun-2018].
 S. Bayramzadeh et al., “The Impact of Operating Room Layout on Circulating Nurse’s Work Patterns and Flow Disruptions: A Behavioral Mapping Study,” HERD Health Environ. Res. Des. J., vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 124–138, Jul. 2018, doi: 10.1177/1937586717751124.
 W. Lauer, B. Ibach, and K. Radermacher, “Knowledge-based OR table positioning assistant for orthopedic surgery,” in 4th European Conference of the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009, pp. 1676–1678.
 D. Zajonz et al., “Increase of efficiency by optimization of table position for elective primary THA and TKA: a prospective monocentric pilot study,” submitted, 2020.
 J. Neumann, C. Angrick, D. Rollenhagen, A. Roth, and T. Neumuth, “Perioperative Workflow Simulation and Optimization in Orthopedic Surgery,” in MICCAI 2018, OR 2.0 Context-Aware Operating Theaters, Granada, Spain, 2018, vol. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pp. 3–11.