Ethics approval and consent to participate
This study was approved by the Institutional Research Ethics Committee of the Institute of Endemic Diseases (IEND), University of Khartoum and Soba University Hospital (Ref: 12/2017). Written informed consent was obtained from all participants.
Consent for publication
Availability of data and materials
The data for the present study, including the genotypes, isolation location and resistance status of each bacterial isolate, will be available upon reasonable request.
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
This research received partial research fund from the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Sudan (grant number SUD/MOH/MMAH/08/2016). FN, LE, TDM, MO, JT, FV, GI, AYO, AZ and MMZ are part of PANDORA-ID-NET Consortium (EDCTP Reg/Grant RIA2016E-1609) funded by the European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP2) programme, which is supported under Horizon 2020, the European Union’s Framework Programme for Research and Innovation.
The funders had no role in the study design, data collection, analysis, interpretation or writing of the manuscript.
HE, KE, AA and MMAH designed the study. HE carried out the microbiological analysis. HE and HA analysed the data. HE and MMAH wrote the first draft. MMAH, KE, EM, HA, FN, LE, TDM, MO, JT, FV, GI and AZ were major contributors in revising the manuscript critically for important intellectual content. MMAH, EM, and KE supervised the work. MMAH,AH and HA secured funding for the practical work. AZ and AYO revised the final draft. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
We would like to thank the medical and technical staff of Medical Microbiology Department in Soba University Hospital, University of Khartoum for their help in data collection.
FN; LE; TDM; AA; MO; FV; GI; AZ;AYO; MMA are members of the Pan African Network for Rapid Research, Response, and Preparedness for Infectious Diseases Epidemics consortium (PANDORA-ID-NET) -supported by the European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP2) programme (RIA2016E-1609 ). AZ is in receipt of a National Institutes of Health Research senior investigator award.
1Soba University Hospital, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan
2 Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan
3Ahfad University for Women, Omdurman
4Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan
5Department of Biochemistry, College of Sciences, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, KSA
6Université Marien NGouabi, Fondation Congolaise pour la Recherche Médicale (FCRM), Brazzaville, Congo; Institute for Tropical Medicine, University of Tübingen, Germany
7Center for Clinical Microbiology, University College London, Royal Free Campus, Rowland Hill Street, London NW3 2PF, United Kingdom
8Centre for Immunology and Infection, Dept. of Biology and Hull York Medical School, University of York, Heslington, York, United Kingdom
9UNZA-UCLMS and HERPEZ Research and training programs, University teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia
10National Institute for Infectious Diseases, Lazzaro Spallanzani, IRCCS, Via Portuense 292, Rome 00149, Italy
11 The Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hatfield, Hertfordshire
12 UCL Hospitals NIHR Biomedical Research Centre London, London, UK.