Background: Foot and mount disease (FMD) is a highly contagious, economically and politically significant transboundary animal disease which specifically affects all cloven-hoofed animals; cattle, pig, goat, sheep and many wild artiodactyls. Five of the seven (O, A, C, SAT1, SAT2, SAT3 and Asia 1) serotypes of FMD virus (O, A, C, SAT1, SAT2) are endemic in Ethiopia; however, limited information on the current FMDV status and the circulating serotype is available in the country. Therefore, this study was conduct to isolate and molecularly identify the FMD viruses using a panel of virological detection assays. Methods: An outbreak-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Addis Ababa and Bishoftu during 2013 and 2014 to isolate and to molecularly identify the circulating serotype of FMDV. A total of 20 samples were collected from clinically infected cattle and pigs during the outbreak and virus isolation and molecular serotype identification was carried out at the National Veterinary Institute (NVI), Bishoftu Ethiopia. Cells were monitored for cytopathic effects (CPE) daily and frozen when CPE were developed. Serotyping of FMD viruses were made by applying classical PCR from cell cultures showing CPE.
Results: All tested samples showed cytopathic effect (CPE) on BHK-21 cell culture and serotype O was identified using PCR. The DNA bands were visualized to the expected sizes.
Conclusions: Based on these result, a continuous understanding of the molecular epidemiology of the disease along with the proper vaccination matching for the circulating serotype; O is critical for implementation effective control and prevention programs eventually for the eradication of the disease.