Jupiter’s atmosphere is one of the most turbulent places in the solar system. While lightning and thunderstorm observations point to moist convection as a small-scale energy source for Jupiter’s large-scale vortices and zonal jets, it has never been demonstrated due to the coarse resolution of pre-Juno measurements. Since 2017, the Juno spacecraft discovered that Jovian high-latitudes host a cluster of large cyclones (diameter of ~ 5,000 km each) associated with intermediate (~ 1,600--500 km) and smaller-scale vortices and filaments (~ 100 km). Here, we analyze Juno-infrared images with an unprecedented high-resolution of 10 km. We unveil a new dynamical regime associated with a significant energy source of convective origin that peaks at 100 km-scales and in which energy gets subsequently transferred upscale to the large circumpolar and polar cyclones. While this energy route has never been observed on another planet, it is surprisingly consistent with idealized studies of rapidly rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection, lending robust theoretical support to our analyses. This energy route is expected to enhance the heat transfer from Jupiter’s hot interior to its troposphere and may also be relevant to the Earth’s atmosphere, helping us better understand the dynamics of our own planet.