Background Repetitive practice of sensorimotor tasks is widely used for neurorehabilitation; however, it is unknown how practice alters sensory processing (e.g., recognition, discrimination, and attentional allocation) and associated cognitive processing, such as decision-making. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) reflecting sensory processing, attention, and decision-making are altered by sensorimotor learning. 15 participants preformed a simple sensorimotor response task (thumb opposition in response to surface electrical stimulation), with experimental recording sessions before and after three days of practice. We then compared multiple SEP waveforms and reaction times (RTs) between pre- and postpractice trials. Results As expected, the RT was reduced after practice of three days, and this was associated with shorter N140 and N250 latencies and larger P300 amplitude. Conclusions The present study suggests that motor learning improves somatosensory processing and attentional allocation via neuroplasticity and that these alterations are reflected by specific SEP changes.