In active matter systems, deformable boundaries provide a mechanism to organize internal active stresses and perform work on the external environment. To study a minimal model of such a system, we perform particle-based simulations of an elastic vesicle containing a collection of polar active filaments. The interplay between the active stress organization due to interparticle interactions and that due to the deformability of the confinement leads to a variety of filament spatiotemporal organizations that have not been observed in bulk systems or under rigid confinement, including highly-aligned rings and caps. In turn, these filament assemblies drive dramatic and tunable transformations of the vesicle shape and its dynamics. We present simple scaling models that reveal the mechanisms underlying these emergent behaviors and yield design principles for engineering active materials with targeted shape dynamics.