1 Perez-Escamilla R, Lutter CK, Rabadan-Diehl C, Rubinstein A, Calvillo A, Corvalán C, et al: Prevention of childhood obesity and food policies in Latin America: from research to practice. Obes Rev 2017, 19 Suppl 2:28-38.
2 Pacheco LS, Blanco E, Burrows R, Reyes M, Lozoff B, Gahagan S: Early Onset Obesity and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome Among Chilean adolescents. Prev Chronic Dis 2017, 14:E93.
3 Junta de Auxilio Escolar y Becas de Chile (JUNAEB). Prevalencia de Obesidad en escolares de Primero Básico. Mapa Nutricional. 2017. [Available Dic 2019 in https://www.junaeb.cl/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Mapa-Nutricionalpresentacio%CC%81n2.pdf
4 Vasquez FD, Corvalan CL, Uauy RE, Kain JA: Anthropometric indicators as predictors of total body fat and cardiometabolic risk factors in Chilean children at 4, 7 and 10 years of age. Eur J Clin Nutr 2017, 71:536-543.
5 Cote AT, Harris KC, Panagiotopoulos C, Sandor GG, Devlin AM: Childhood obesity and cardiovascular dysfunction. J Am Coll Cardiol 2013, 62:1309-19.
6 Cesa CC, Sbruzzi G, Ribeiro RA, Barbiero SM, de Oliveira Petkowicz R, Eibel B, Machado et al: Physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors in children: meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Prev Med 2014, 69:54-62.
7 García-Hermoso A, Ramírez-Campillo R, Izquierdo M: Is Muscular Fitness Associated with Future Health Benefits in Children and Adolescents? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies. Sports Med 2019, 49:1079–1094.
8 Schuler G, Adams V, Goto Y: Role of exercise in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: results, mechanisms, and new perspectives. Eur Heart J 2013, 34:1790-9.
9 Organización Mundial de la Salud. Estrategia Mundial sobre Régimen Alimentario, Actividad Física y Salud. La inactividad física. [availible Dic 2019 http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/factsheet_inactivity/es/index.html)
10 Sirico F, Bianco A, D'Alicandro G, Castaldo C, Montagnani S, Spera R, Di Meglio F, Nurzynska D (2018) Effects of Physical Exercise on Adiponectin, Leptin, and Inflammatory Markers in Childhood Obesity: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Child Obes 14:207-217.
11 Aguilar-Farias N, Miranda-Marquez S, Sadarangani KP, Martino-Fuentealba P, Cristi-Montero C, Carcamo et al. Results from Chile's 2018 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth. J Phys Act Health 2018, 15(S2):S331-S332.
12 Díaz-Martínez X, Petermann F, Leiva AM, Garrido-Méndez A, Salas-Bravo C, Martínez MA, et al: Association of physical inactivity with obesity, diabetes, hypertension and metabolic syndrome in the chilean population. Rev Med Chil 2018, 146:585-595.
13 Telama R, Yang X, Leskinen E, Kankaanpää A, Hirvensalo M, Tammelin T, et al. Tracking of physical activity from early childhood through youth into adulthood. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2014, 46:955-962.
14 Basterfield L, Pearce MS, Adamson AJ, Frary JK, Parkinson KN, Wright CM, Reilly JJ: Gateshead Millennium Study Core Team. Physical activity, sedentary behavior, and adiposity in English children. Am J Prev Med 2012, 42:445-51.
15 Report SIMCE Physical Education. Eight grade. Ministry of Education. Unity of Curriculum and Evaluation. Santiago, Chile. 2015. (Available Dic 2019 www.simce.cl)
16 Delgado Floody PA, Caamaño Navarrete F, Palomino-Devia C, Jerez-Mayorga D, et al: Relationship in obese Chilean schoolchildren between physical fitness, physical activity levels and cardiovascular risk factors. Nutr Hosp 2019, 36:13-19.
17 Lang JJ, Larouche R, Tremblay MS:The association between physical fitness and health in a nationally representative sample of Canadian children and youth aged 6 to 17 years. Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can 2019, 39:104-111.
18 Agostinis-Sobrinho C, García-Hermoso A, Ramírez-Vélez R, Moreira C, Lopes L, Oliveira-Santos J, et al: Longitudinal association between ideal cardiovascular health status and muscular fitness in adolescents: The LabMed Physical Activity Study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2018, 28:892-899.
19 Mintjens S, Menting MD, Daams JG, van Poppel MNM, Roseboom TJ, Gemke RJ:Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Childhood and Adolescence Affects Future Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies. Sports Med 2018, 48:2577-2605.
20 Artero EG, Ruiz JR, Ortega FB, et al. Muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness are independently associated with metabolic risk in adolescents: the HELENA study. Pediatr Diabetes. 2011;12(8):704–712.
21 Steene-Johannessen J, Anderssen SA, Kolle E, Andersen LB: Low muscle fitness is associated with metabolic risk in youth. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(7):1361–1367.
22 Myers J, Kokkinos P, Nyelin E: Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and the Metabolic Syndrome. Nutrients. 2019;11(7):1652.
23 González L, Corvalán C, Pereira A, Kain J, Garmendia ML, Uauy R: Early adiposity rebound is associated with metabolic risk in 7-year-old children. Int J Obes (Lond) 2014, 38:1299-304.
24 Capon T: Standardised anatomical alignment of the head in a clinical photography studio. A comparison between the Frankfort Horizontal and the natural head position. J Vis Commun Med 2016, 39:105-111.
25 de Onis M, Onyango AW, Borghi E, Siyam A, Nishida C, Siekmann J: Development of a WHO growth reference for school-aged children and adolescents. Bull World Health Organ 2017, 85:660-7.
26 National Center for Health Statistics. Growth curves. CDC growth Charts for United States: Methods and development. 2000. (Available Janury 2020 in www.cdc.gov/growthcharts).
27 Gomez-Campos R, Andruske CL, Hespanhol J, Torres JS, Arruda M, Luarte-Rocha C, Cossio-Bolaños MA: Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2015, 9:7712-7724.
28 Asif M, Aslam M, Altaf S: Evaluation of anthropometric parameters of central obesity in Pakistani children aged 5-12 years, using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2018, 31:971-977.
29 Tanner JM, Whitehouse RH:Clinical longitudinal standards for height, weight, height velocity, weight velocity, and stages of puberty. Arch Dis Child 1976, 51: 170–179.
30 American Diabetes Association: Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care 2017, 40:s11-s24.
31 Radziuk J:Homeostastic Model Assessment and Insulin Sensitivity /Resistance. Diabetes 2014, 63:1850-1854.
32 Moschonis G, Karatzi K, Polychronopoulou MC, Manios Y: Waist circumference, trunk and visceral fat cutoff values for detecting hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in children: the Healthy Growth Study. Eur J Nutr 2016, 55:2331-4.
33 Burrows R, Correa-Burrows P, Reyes M, Blanco E, Albala C, Gahagan S: Healthy Chilean Adolescents with HOMA-IR ≥ 2.6 Have Increased Cardiometabolic Risk: Association with Genetic, Biological, and Environmental Factors. J Diabetes Res 2015, 783296.
34 Smith AJ, Turner EL, Kinra S:Universal Cholesterol Screening in Childhood: A Systematic Review. Acad Pediatr 2016, 16:716-725.
35 Corvalán C, Uauy R, Stein AD, Kain J, Martorell R: Effect of growth on cardiometabolic status at 4 y of age. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009; 90(3):547–555.
36 Mokha J, Srinivasan S, DasMahapatra P, Fernandez C, Chen W, Xu J, Berenson G: Utility of waist-to-height ratio in assessing the status of central obesity and related cardiometabolic risk profile among normal weight and ove rweight/obese children: The Bogalusa Heart Study. BMC Pediatrics 2010, 10:73.
37 Kamel M, Smith BT, Wahi G, Carsley S, Birken CS, Anderson LN: Continuous cardiometabolic risk score definitions in early childhood: a scoping review. Obes Rev 2018, 19:1688-1699.
38 ATS Statement Guidelines for the Six-Minute Walk Test. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002, 166:111-117.
39 Li A, Yin J, Hung S, Tsang T, Wong E, Fok T, Ng P: Standard Reference for the Six-Minute-Walk Test in Healthy Children Aged 7 to 16 years. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2007, 176:174-80.
40 Oliveira AC, Rodrigues CC, Rolim DS, Souza AA, Nascimento OA, Jardim JR, Rozov T:Six-minute walk test in healthy children: is the leg length important? Pediatr Pulmonol 2013, 48:921-6.
41 Ervin RB, Fryar CD, Wang CY, Miller IM, Ogden CL: Strength and body weight in US children and adolescents. Pediatrics 2014, 134:e782-e789.
42 Castro-Piñero J, Ortega F, Artero E, Girela- Rejon M, Mora J, Sjostron M, Ruiz J: Assessing muscular strength in youth: usefulness of standing long jump as a general index of muscular fitness. J Strength Cond Res 2010, 24:1810–1817.
43 Andersen LB, Harro M, Sardinha LB, Froberg K, Ekelund U, Brage S, Anderssen SA: Physical activity and clustered cardiovascular risk in children: a cross-sectional study (The European Youth Heart Study). Lancet 2006, 22:299-304.
44 Šebeková K, Gurecká R, Csongová M, Koborová I, Šebek J: Estimation of the proportion of metabolic syndrome-free subjects on high cardiometabolic risk using two continuous cardiometabolic risk scores: a cross-sectional study in 16- to 20-year-old individuals. Eur J Pediatr 2019, 178:1243-1253.
45 Vásquez FD, Corvalán CL, Uauy RE, Kain JA: Anthropometric indicators as predictors of total body fat and cardiometabolic risk factors in Chilean children at 4, 7 and 10 years of age. Eur J Clin Nutr 2017, 71:536-543.
46 Ervin RB, Fryar CD, Wang CY, Miller IM, Ogden CL: Strength and body weight in US children and adolescents. Pediatrics 2014, 134: e782-e789.
47 Van Hulst A, Ybarra M2, Mathieu ME, Benedetti A, Paradis G, Henderson M: Determinants of new onset cardiometabolic risk among normal weight children. Int J Obes (Lond). 2020; 44:781-789.
48 . Wong SL: Grip strength reference values for Canadians aged 6 to 79: Canadian Health Measures Survey, 2007 to 2013. Health Rep 2016, 27:3-10.
49  Laitinen TT, Saner C, Nuotio J, et al: Lower grip strength in youth with obesity identifies those with increased cardiometabolic risk]. Obes Res Clin Pract. 2020;S1871-403X(19)30792-6.
50 Cohen DD, Gómez-Arbeláez D, Camacho PA, et al: Low muscle strength is associated with metabolic risk factors in Colombian children: the ACFIES study. PLoS One. 2014; 9(4): e93150.
51 . Li A, Yin J, Yu C, Tsang T, So H, Wong E, et al: The six-minute walk test in healthy children: reliability and validity. Eur Respir J 2005, 25:1057-1060.
52 Moura BP, Rufino RL, Faria RC2: Amorim PRS. 2Effects of isotemporal substitution of sedentary behavior with light-intensity or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on cardiometabolic markers in male adolescents. PLoS One. 2019; 14 (11):e0225856.
53 Isasi CR, Strizich GM, Kaplan R, Daviglus ML, Sotres-Alvarez D, Vidot DC: The association of cardiorespiratory fitness with cardiometabolic factors, markers of inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction in Latino youth: findings from the Hispanic Community Children's Health Study/Study of Latino Youth. Ann Epidemiol 2018, 28:583-589.
54 Castro-Piñero J, Perez-Bey A, Cuenca-Garcia M, Cabanas-Sanchez V, Gómez-Martínez S, Veiga OL: Cut Points for Early Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk in Children and Adolescents. J Pediatr 2018, S0022-3476(18)31466-5.
55 Agostinis-Sobrinho C, Ruiz JR, Moreira C, Lopes L, Ramírez-Vélez R, García-Hermoso A, Mota J, Santos R: Changes in muscular fitness and its association with blood pressure in adolescents. Eur J Pediatr 2018, 177:1101-1109.
56 Schmidt MD, Magnussen CG, Rees E, Dwyer T, Venn AJ: Childhood fitness reduces the long-term cardiometabolic risks associated with childhood obesity. Int J Obes (Lond) 2016, 40:1134-1140.
57 Thivel D, Ring-Dimitriou S, Weghuber D, Frelut ML, O'Malley G: Muscle Strength and Fitness in Pediatric Obesity: a Systematic Review from the European Childhood Obesity Group. Obes Facts 2016, 9:52-63.
58 Laurson KR, Saint-Maurice PF, Welk GJ, Eisenmann JC: Reference Curves for Field Tests of Musculoskeletal Fitness in U.S. Children and Adolescents: The 2012 NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey. J Strength Cond Res 2017, 31:2075-2082.
59 Segura-Jiménez V, Parrilla-Moreno F, Fernández-Santos JR, Esteban-Cornejo I, Gómez-Martínez S, Martinez-Gomez D, et al: Physical fitness as a mediator between objectively measured physical activity and clustered metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents: The UP&DOWN study. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2016, 26:1011-1019.