BACKGROUND Klebsiella species are among the most common causes of bloodstream infection (BSI). However, few studies have evaluated their epidemiology in non-selected populations. The objective was to define the incidence of, risk factors for, and outcomes from Klebsiella species BSI among residents of the western interior of British Columbia, Canada.METHODS Population-based surveillance was conducted between April 1, 2010 and March 31, 2017.RESULTS 151 episodes were identified for an incidence of 12.1 per 100,000 population per year; the incidences of K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca were 9.1 and 2.9 per 100,000 per year, respectively. Overall 24 (16%) were hospital-onset, 90 (60%) were healthcare-associated, and 37 (25%) were community-associated. The median patient age was 71.4 (interquartile range, 58.8-80.9) years and 88 (58%) cases were males. Episodes were uncommon among patients aged Common.EditSubmissionSteps.Transform.EquationText 40 years old and no cases were observed among those aged Common.EditSubmissionSteps.Transform.EquationText 10 years. A number of co-morbid medical illnesses were identified as significant risks and included (incidence rate ratio; 95% confidence interval) cerebrovascular accident (5.9; 3.3-9.9), renal disease 4.3; 2.5-7.0), cancer (3.8; 2.6-5.5), congestive heart failure (3.5; 1.6-6.6), dementia (2.9; 1.5-5.2), diabetes mellitus (2.6; 1.7-3.9), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (2.3; 1.5-3.5). Of the 141 (93%) patients admitted to hospital, the median hospital length stay was 8 days (interquartile range, 4-17). The in-hospital and 30-day all cause case-fatality rates were 24/141 (17%) and 27/151 (18%), respectively.CONCLUSIONS Klebsiella species BSI is associated with a significant burden of illness particularly among those with chronic co-morbid illnesses.