High processing efficiency and low environmental pollution have been recognized as important goals of sustainable electrical discharge machining (EDM). This paper proposed a sustainable and efficient EDM method called rotating short arc milling. In order to improve the processing efficiency and reduce pollutant emissions, the principles of this method to achieve high material removal rate (MRR), low tool electrode wear rate (TEWR) and environmentally friendly dielectric are described separately. The rotating short arcs generated by the compound field can improve the machining efficiency. The action of the magnetic field and the internal high-pressure dielectric can quickly remove the debris avoiding irregular discharge, thereby improving the machining quality. Due to the attraction effect of the magnetic field on the debris, several debris adhere to the processing end of the tool electrode to form a protective layer and participates in the processing as a part of the tool electrode, which can reduce the tool electrode wear. Tap water is used as the working fluid to reduce pollutants generated during processing. Then, a series of experiments are conducted to study the influence of process parameters on the processing of GH4169 superalloy. The results show that the machining voltage, machining depth and magnetic field strength are the three most important factors that affect the efficiency and sustainability of rotating short arc milling. Furthermore, the optimal process parameters are obtained by using gray relational analysis method to optimize the machining process in terms of high efficiency and environmental protection.