This study takes the north and south mountains of Lanzhou as the study area, calculates the soil erosion modulus of the north and south mountains of Lanzhou based on the five major soil erosion factors in the RUSLE model and analyzes the temporal and spatial dynamic changes of soil erosion and the characteristics of soil erosion under different environmental factors. The results show that the soil erosion intensity of the north and south mountains of Lanzhou is mainly micro erosion in 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015 and 2018. They are distributed in the northwest and southeast of the north and south mountains. Under different environmental factors, the soil erosion modulus first increased and then decreased with the increase of altitude; the soil erosion modulus increased with the increase of slope; the average soil erosion modulus of grassland and woodland was larger, and the average soil erosion modulus of water area was the smallest; except for bare land, the average soil erosion modulus decreased with the increase of vegetation coverage. The soil erosion modulus in the greening range is lower than that outside the greening scope, mainly the result of the joint influence of precipitation, soil and vegetation.