In the present study, most students had multi-modal learning style, which is consistent with the results of some research [26–32]. It seems that humans tend to utilize their maximum capabilities for learning further and more perfectly. In other words, the use of various learning styles covers the learning objectives more completely.
The results of the present study are in agreement with those obtained by other researchers the target population of which was not only medical students (33–34).
However, they are not in line with those of some studies focused on examining the learning style of medical students ( 35–36). Given that teaching and learning are based on the context, some differences can be expected in the learning styles in the learning positions of other countries by considering cultural, social, and economic conditions, personality traits, and available learning infrastructures.
Various studies have been conducted on the learning style of other medical sciences students, in some of which the results related to medical students were combined with others and not analyzed separately, which are inconsistent with those obtained in the present one (37–39). Fleming pointed out in the VARK website that only 36% of individuals applied single-modal learning styles, while the most (64%) had multi-modal ones .
Based on the results of the present study, most students utilized bi-modal learning style (21.62%) among multi-modal ones, which is in agreement with those obtained by some researchers [27, 31–33, 36, 37, 39]. However, it is not in line with those of Farkas et al.  and Peyman et al.  which indicated preferring quad-modal style (VARK) by students. Ilpour reported tri-modal style as the dominant multi-modal ones among students. As already mentioned, learning position and its effect on teaching and learning can likely be effective on the results generally.
In the present study, 48% of students preferred single-modal learning style (visual, aural, read/write, or kinesthetic) during receiving information, among whom 37.74% learned through hearing and paid more attention to teachers' words, so-called aural learning style students. In addition, individuals with aural learning style can memorize information through reading aloud, especially when learning new thing [40–42]. Further, 26.02% of subjects preferred to gain information by applying printed writings, reading, and writing, read/write learning style students, one of the main traits of whom includes better learning through taking notes from lectures and reading the notes. Furthermore, 20.75% of individuals, kinesthetic learning style ones, preferred a combination of different senses (touching, hearing, smelling, tasting, and seeing), who learn more through experiencing and acting. Finally, 15.09% had visual style and preferred to acquire information by using figures, charts, and flowcharts. They can draw figure and chart during explaining issues and concepts for others. The results of the previous studies demonstrated that the students preferring visual style are often known as creative and highly imaginative .
Additionally, aural learning style was reported as the first priority preferred by students in some studies [26, 37, 43–45], which is in line with the results of the present study. Further, Salimi et al.  referred to the preference of aural style only among females. However, some researchers reported the priority of visual , kinesthetic [28, 30, 31, 49], and read/write style .
Due to the difference in the results of various studies, as well as observing multi-modal styles in most individuals, academic instructor should consider this point and utilize diverse teaching approaches to enhance learning.
Based on the results of the present study, most of the subjects having multi-modal learning style applied bi-modal one. Among bi- and tri-modal ones, AR and ARK styles were more preferred by students, respectively. Prithishkumar and Micheal  found the preference of first-year medical students in India to use AK and ARK styles among bi- and tri-modal styles. The issue can be related to the fact that subjects preferred to use kinesthetic learning style, and aural style was referred as the first priority in the study. Therefore, aural style was dominant in both single- and multi-modal styles and was utilized by a larger percentage of the students under study.
Finally, diploma GPA and gender were not related to learning style, which is consistent with the results of some researchers which reflected an insignificant relationship between gender and learning style [27, 28, 30, 32, 43, 47]. Accordingly, no relationship is observed between gender and preferred learning styles.
The limitations of the present study are provided as follows. The questionnaire was completed only based on the individual perceptions and could not measure interfering factors such as socio-economic status, race, and culture, similar to the other research using the tool. Additionally, the study was conducted only among first-year medical students who were highly affected by university entrance exam, known as Konkour, which may influence their preference to utilize the learning styles.