1 World Health Organization. Guidelines for Safe Surgery 2009. Geneva, Switzerland, 2009: World Health Organization
2 Endsley MR. Toward a Theory of Situation Awareness in Dynamic Systems. Hum factors 1995; 37: 32–64
3 Schulz CM, Endsley MR, Kochs EF, Gelb AW, Wagner KJ. Situation awareness in anesthesia: concept and research. Anesthesiology 2013;118:729–42.
4 Endsley M, Jones, D. Designing for situation awareness: an approach to user centered design. Boca Raton, FL, USA: CRC Press Inc., 2011.
5 Fioratou E, Flin R, Glavin R, Patey R. Beyond monitoring: distributed situation awareness in anesthesia. Br J Anaesth 2010; 105: 83–90
6 Schulz CM, Burden A, Posner KL, et al. Frequency and Type of Situational Awareness Errors Contributing to Death and Brain Damage: A Closed Claims Analysis. Anesthesiology 2017;127:326–37.
7 Loeb RG. Monitor surveillance and vigilance of anesthesia residents. Anesthesiology 1994; 80: 527–33
8 Ford S, Birmingham E, King A, Lim J, Ansermino JM. At-a-glance monitoring: covert observations of anesthesiologists in the operating room. Anesth Analg 2010; 111: 653–8
9 Rensink RA. Change detection. Annu Rev Psychol 2002; 53: 245–77
10 Ho AM, Leung JYC, Mizubuti GB, et al. Inattentional blindness in anesthesiology: A simulation study. J Clin Anesth 2017; 42: 36–9
11 Greig PR, Higham H, Nobre AC. Failure to perceive clinical events: an under-recognised source of error. Resuscitation 2014; 85: 952–6
12 Simons DJ. Attentional capture and inattentional blindness. Trends Cogn Sci 2000; 4: 147–55
13 Mack A. Inattentional Blindness: Looking Without Seeing. Curr Dir Psychol Sci 2003; 12: 180–4
14 Mack A, Pappas Z, Silverman M, Gay R. What we see: inattention and the capture of attention by meaning. Conscious Cogn 2002; 11: 488–506
15 Jungk A, Thull B, Hoeft A, Rau G. Ergonomic evaluation of an ecological interface and a profilogram display for hemodynamic monitoring. J Clin Monit Comput 1999; 15: 469–79
16 Jungk A, Thull B, Hoeft A, Rau G. Evaluation of two new ecological interface approaches for the anesthesia workplace. J Clin Monit Comput 2000; 16: 243–58
17 Wachter SB, Johnson K, Albert R, Syroid N, Drews F, Westenskow D. The evaluation of a pulmonary display to detect adverse respiratory events using high resolution human simulator. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2006;13:635–642
18 Drews FA, Westenskow DR. The right picture is worth a thousand numbers: data displays in anesthesia. Hum factors 2006; 48: 59–71
19 Dosani M, Hunc K, Dumont GA, et al. A vibro-tactile display for clinical monitoring: real-time evaluation. Anesth Analg 2012; 115: 588–94
20 Schlosser PD, Grundgeiger T, Sanderson PM, Happel O. An exploratory clinical evaluation of a head-worn display based multiple-patient monitoring application: impact on supervising anesthesiologists’ situation awareness. J Clin Monit Comput 2019 Feb 5.
21 Tscholl DW, Handschin L, Rossler J, Weiss M, Spahn DR, Nothiger CB. It’s not you, it’s the design - common problems with patient monitoring reported by anesthesiologists: a mixed qualitative and quantitative study. BMC Anesthesiol 2019; 19: 87
22 Wittgenstein L. Tractatus logico-philosophicus. London, UK: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1922.
23 Tscholl DW, Handschin L, Neubauer P, et al. Using an animated patient avatar to improve perception of vital sign information by anesthesia professionals. Br J Anaesth 2018; 121: 662–71
24 Tscholl DW, Weiss M, Handschin L, Spahn DR, Nöthiger CB. User perceptions of avatar-based patient monitoring: a mixed qualitative and quantitative study. BMC Anesthesiol 2018; 18: 188
25 Tscholl DW, Rössler J, Handschin L, Seifert B, Spahn DR, Nöthiger CB. There’s more to the picture than meets the eye: the mechanisms responsible for improved information transfer in avatar-based patient monitoring explained by eye-tracking. JMIR Preprints. 17/06/2019:15070 DOI: 10.2196/preprints.15070
26 Pfarr J, Ganter MT, Spahn DR, Nöthiger CB, Tscholl DW. Avatar-based patient monitoring with peripheral vision. J Med Internet Res 2019 Jul 17;21(7):e13041.
27 Gurushanthaiah K, Weinger M, Englund C. Visual Display Format Affects the Ability of Anesthesiologists to Detect Acute Physiologic Changes: A Laboratory Study Employing a Clinical Display Simulator. Anesthesiology 1995;83(6):1184–1193.
28 Görges M, Staggers N. Evaluations of physiological monitoring displays: a systematic review. J Clin Monit Comput. 2008 Feb;22(1):45–66.
29 Hart S. Nasa-Task Load Index (Nasa-TLX); 20 Years Later. Proc Hum Factors Ergon Soc Annu Meet 2006; Vol 50, Issue 9.
30 Casner SM, Gore B. Measuring and Evaluating Workload: A Primer. 2010: NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA
31 Webster CS, Weller JM. Self-reported ratings appear to be the best for workload measurement. BMJ Simul Technol Enhanc Learn 2018; 4: 108–9
32 Mazur LM, Mosaly PR, Moore C, Comitz E, Yu F, Falchook AD, Eblan MJ, Hoyle LM,Tracton G, Chera BS, Marks LB. Toward a better understanding of task demands, workload, and performance during physician-computer interactions. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2016 Nov;23(6):1113–1120
33 Tubbs-Cooley HL, Mara CA, Carle AC, Mark BA, Pickler RH. Association of Nurse Workload With Missed Nursing Care in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. JAMA Pediatr. 2019 Jan 1;173(1):44–51.
34 Hoonakker P, Carayon P, Gurses A, Brown R, McGuire K, Khunlertkit A, Walker. Measuring workload of ICU nurses with a questionnaire survey: the NASA Task Load Index (TLX). IIE Transactions on Healthcare Systems Engineering. 2011;1(2):131–143.
35 Huggins A, Claudio DA A performance comparison between the subjective workload analysis technique and the NASA-TLX in a healthcare setting, IISE Transactions on Healthcare Systems Engineering. 2018; 8:1, 59–71
36 Fothergill S, Neal A. The effect of workload on conflict decision making strategies in air traffic control. Proc Hum Factor Ergon Soc Annu Meet 2008; 52: 39e43.
37 Tscholl DW, Weiss M, Spahn DR, Noethiger CB. How to Conduct Multimethod Field Studies in the Operating Room: The iPad Combined With a Survey App as a Valid and Reliable Data Collection Tool. JMIR Res Protoc 2016; 5: e4
38 Faul F, Erdfelder E, Lang AG, Buchner A. G*Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods 2007; 39, 175–191.
39 Gaba DM, Howard SK, Small SD. Situation awareness in anesthesiology. Hum factors 1995; 37: 20–31
40 Webster CS, Weller JM. Self-reported ratings appear to be the best for workload measurement. BMJ Simul Technol Enhanc Learn 2018; 4: 108–9
41 Simons DJ, Chabris CF. Gorillas in our midst: sustained inattentional blindness for dynamic events. Perception 1999; 28: 1059–74
42 Yang X, Kim JH. Measuring Workload in a Multitasking Environment Using Fractal Dimension of Pupil Dilation. Int J Hum Comput Interact. 2018: 1–10
43 Aasman J, Mulder G, Mulder LJ. Operator effort and the measurement of heart-rate variability. Hum factors 1987; 29: 161–70