Understanding agronomic traits at a genetic level enables the leveraging of this knowledge to produce crops that are more productive and resilient, have better quality and are adjusted for consumer preferences. In the last decade, rice has become a model to validate the function of specific genes, resulting in valuable but scattered information. Here, we aimed to identify particular genes in rice related to traits that can be targeted by different mutation techniques in the breeding of crops. We selected gain of function, misfunction, and specific mutations associated with phenotypes of agronomic interest. The review includes specific trait-related genes involved in domestication, stress, herbicide tolerance, pathogen resistance, grain number, quality, weight, plant structure, nitrogen use, and others. The information presented can be used for rice and crops with similar or homologous genes to breed crops that require improvement to achieve more sustainable production in challenging farming conditions.