In many phenomena of biological systems, not a majority, but a minority of cells act on the entire multicellular system causing drastic changes in the system properties. To understand the mechanisms underlying such phenomena, it is essential to observe the spatiotemporal dynamics of a huge population of cells at sub-cellular resolution, which is difficult with conventional tools such as microscopy and flow cytometry. Here, we describe an imaging system named AMATERAS that enables optical imaging with an over-one-centimeter field-of-view and a-few-micrometer spatial resolution. This trans-scale-scope has a simple configuration, composed of a low-power lens for machine vision and a hundred-megapixel image sensor. We demonstrated its high cell-throughput, capable of simultaneously observing more than one million cells. We applied it to dynamic imaging of calcium ions in HeLa cells and cyclic-adenosine-monophosphate in Dictyostelium discoideum, and successfully detected less than 0.01% of rare cells and observed multicellular events induced by these cells.