At present, dental implant surgery mainly relies on the clinical experience of the doctor and the assistance of preoperative medical imaging. However, there are some problems in dental implant surgery, such as narrow space, sight obstruction, inaccurate positioning, and high requirements of doctors' proficiency. Therefore, a dental implant robot system (DIRS) guided by optical navigation is developed in this study, with an x-shaped tool and an irregular pentagonal tracer are designed for spatial registration and needle tip positioning strategy respectively. The coordinate system of each unit in DIRS is unified through system calibration, spatial registration, and needle tip positioning strategy. Then the surgical path is planned on the Computed Tomography (CT) images in the navigation software before operation. The automatic positioning method and the auxiliary positioning method can be used in the operation to achieve accurate positioning and assist doctors to complete the operation. The errors of spatial registration, needle tip positioning strategy, and the overall accuracy of the system were evaluated respectively, and the results showed that they all met the needs of clinical surgery. This study preliminarily verified the feasibility of the precise positioning method for dental surgery robots and provided certain ideas for subsequent related research.