Background: Radiation-induced sarcoma (RIS) is a rare complication following radiotherapy of head and neck carcinoma. It occurs mostly within the limits of the irradiated area and always suggests a poor prognosis.
Case summary: Herein, we reported one case of a 61-year-old male with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), who had a history of surgery and radiotherapy. In 2014, this patient was admitted in our hospital for increasing hoarseness five years after surgery and radiotherapy. Finally, the patient was diagnosed as fibrosarcoma and was given total laryngectomy, the patient was died in August 2019 within following up. In addition, the clinical and pathological characteristics of similar cases and their probable tumorgenesis were also reviewed.
Conclusion: RIS is increasingly important. They usually occur mostly within the limits of the irradiated area. SCC is the most common malignant tumour in the head and neck region, and radiotherapy is a primary adjuvant therapy method. For patients receiving radiotherapy, physicians should follow up more carefully for early detection the RISs. For sarcomas occurring in head and neck region, especially RIS, complete surgical resection is the primary treatment. The choice of radiotherapy and chemotherapy should be more cautious. The prognosis of primary sarcomas or RISs is still controversial. No matter primary sarcomas or RISs, we believe that complete surgical resection should be considered as a top priority in surgery.