Rainfall erosivity is regarded as one of the main factors affected soil erosion. Based on the 117 a monthly precipitation data of Beijing from 1901 to 2017, the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of rainfall erosivity in Beijing were analyzed by using Theil-Sen median analysis (Sen) and the Mann–Kendall (MK) trend test, R/S analysis method, cumulative anomaly method , MK mutation test method, Pettitt test, and wavelet analysis. The results showed that the average annual rainfall erosivity in Beijing ranged from 1080.6 to 6432.78 MJ • mm / (hm2 • h • a), with an average value of 3465.06 MJ • mm / (hm2 • h • a), showing a gradual decrease from southeast to northwest. In the seasonal distribution, 86% of rainfall erosivity was mainly concentrated in summer. In the past 117 years, the annual rainfall erosivity in most areas of Beijing had shown a downward trend, but its future trend also showed an increasing trend, indicating that Beijing, especially the northern part, was facing greater potential pressure of soil erosion. Through the cross validation of various methods, the abrupt change interval of rainfall erosivity in Beijing from 1901 to 2017 was from 1994 to 1997. The change of rainfall erosivity in Beijing has strong oscillation in 32 years and small periodic change in 15 and 7 years. The results will provide decision-making basis for soil erosion control and water/soil conservation planning. Additionally, they will be benefited to ensure the national agricultural and food security.