With the acceleration of climate instability, drought is causing increasing losses that seriously threaten food security in China. In consideration of the feedback of the ecological environment vulnerability on drought, this study selects the temperature vegetation dryness index to evaluate the boundaries of the regional ecological drought index and integrates many factors, such as precipitation, temperature and human activities, from the four aspects of natural disaster risk management — hazard, vulnerability, exposure and resistance—to establish an integrated drought evaluation index for wheat (IDEIW). The results showed that drought was the main reason for the observed decrease in wheat production of Anyang city, as the most severe water shortages occurred during the physiological water demand period of wheat from March to May. Precipitation scarcities were concentrated throughout the north of the study region, where drought was most frequent and severe. There were highly positive spatial correlations between the IDEIW and the annual yield reduction rate of wheat in dry years, whose bivariate Moran's I values reached 0.39, 0.42, 0.31 and 0.38 in the 2002, 2005, 2011 and 2016, respectively; further, the yield reduction rate increased with drought aggregation. This study clearly demonstrates that, in terms of availability, precision and sensitivity, the IDEIW, which is stronger and stabilizing than the temperature vegetation dryness index and the standardized precipitation index, can be used as an important tool to assess and monitor dynamic variations in agricultural drought and provide a new means for the early warning and forecast management of agricultural drought.