Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) is a major pathogenic factor for the development of gastric diseases including chronic gastritis and gastric cancer. Callicarpa nudiflora (CN), an air-dried leaves extract of Callicarpa nudiflora Hook. & Arn., has been found to exhibit a broad-spectrum antibacterial effect. In our study, we extracted the active ingredient from air-dried leaves of Callicarpa nudiflora, detected the effect of CN against H. pylori -infected GES-1 cells in vitro , and elucidated the underlying mechanism. GES-1 cells were cocultured with HPSS1 at MOI = 100:1 and treated with different concentrations of CN. Results indicated that CN not only significantly decreased cellular lactate dehydrogenase leakage, but also markedly attenuated H. pylori -induced cell apoptosis and ROS production in GSE-1 cells, therefore protecting gastric epithelial cells against injuries caused by H. pylori . CN also inhibited the secretions of inflammatory factors, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. Furthermore, CN remarkably decreased the expression levels of NLRP3, PYCARD, active Caspase-1. In conclusion, CN exhibited highly efficient protective effect against H. pylori -induced gastritis and cell damage; Mechanismly, CN suppressed H. pylori -triggered inflammatory response and pyroptosis through depressing ROS production and NLRP3 inflammasome activation via ROS/NLRP3/IL-1β signaling axis.